Český Institut Metabolického syndromu

Literatura

Comment: Life course body size and lipid levels at 53 years in a British birth cohort. 


Norwich, UK - A new British study has shown that early life exposures—such as stress, infection, and poor nutrition—that restrict height growth in the first two years of life have a secondary effect, resulting in a poorer lipid profile in adulthood [1]. Growth after the age of 15 also played an important role in determining future cholesterol levels. 

 

Comment: Antioxidant vitamins increase mortality  


Copenhagen, Denmark - The largest analysis of data on antioxidant vitamins ever conducted has shown that beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E probably increase mortality [1]. Two other antioxidant substances—vitamin C and selenium—had no effect on mortality.  

 

CONCOMITANT ADMINISTRATION OF STATIN AND FENOFIBRATE IN PATIENTS WITH MIXED DYSLIPIDEMIA 


Background: Mixed dyslipidemia is present in 75% of the Czech population. The Czech Institute of Metabolic Syndrome initiated a study concerning management of mixed dyslipidemia in patients with high risk of atherosclerotic vascular diseases by co- administration of statin and fenofibrate.  

 

Genetic lipoprotein disorders and coronary atherosclerosis. 

Alawadhi M, Thanassoulis G, Marcil M, Genest J.
Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2005 May;7(3):196-203.

Familial lipoprotein disorders are seen frequently in subjects with premature coronary artery disease. The genetic basis for several dyslipoproteinemias has been elucidated in the past two decades. 

 

Dietary alpha-linolenic acid intake and risk of sudden cardiac death and coronary heart disease. 

Albert CM, Oh K, Whang W, Manson JE, Chae CU, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Hu FB.
Circulation. 2005 Nov 22;112(21):3232-8.

BACKGROUND: Alpha-linolenic acid, an intermediate-chain n-3 fatty acid found primarily in plants, may decrease the risk of fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) through a reduction in fatal ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD)... 

 

Visceral Adiposity Index: a reliable indicator of visceral fat function associated with cardiometabolic risk. 

Amato MC, Giordano C, Galia M, Criscimanna A, Vitabile S, Midiri M, Galluzzo A.
Diabetes Care 2010;33:920-2

 

 

The proinflammatory and hypercoagulable state of diabetes mellitus. 

Aras R, Sowers JR, Arora R.
Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2005 Spring;6(2):84-97.

The diabetic population is at high risk for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease... 

 

Effects of fenofibrate therapy on plasma ubiquinol-10 and ubiquinone-10 levels in Japanese patients with hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. 

Asano A, Kobayashi J, Murase Y, Nohara A, Kawashiri MA, Inazu A, Shimizu M, Mabuchi H.
Pharmacotherapy. 2006 Apr;26(4):447-51.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of fenofibrate therapy on concentrations of plasma ubiquinol-10 and ubiquinone-10-the reduced and oxidized forms, respectively, of coenzyme Q(10)... 

 

Effects of fenofibrate therapy on plasma ubiquinol-10 and ubiquinone-10 levels in Japanese patients with hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. 

Asano A, Kobayashi J, Murase Y, Nohara A, Kawashiri MA, Inazu A, Shimizu M, Mabuchi H.
Pharmacotherapy. 2006 Apr;26(4):447-51.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of fenofibrate therapy on concentrations of plasma ubiquinol-10 and ubiquinone-10-the reduced and oxidized forms, respectively, of coenzyme Q(10)... 

 

Comparison of the effects of high doses of rosuvastatin versus atorvastatin on the subpopulations of high-density lipoproteins. 

Asztalos BF, Le Maulf F, Dallal GE, Stein E, Jones PH, Horvath KV, McTaggart F, Schaefer EJ.
Am J Cardiol. 2007 Mar 1;99(5):681-5. Epub 2007 Jan 4.

Atorvastatin and rosuvastatin are both highly effective in decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels. However, rosuvastatin was shown to be more effective in increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels.  

 

Evidence for association between insulin resistance and premature carotid atherosclerosis in childhood obesity. 

Atabek ME, Pirgon O, Kivrak AS.
Pediatr Res. 2007 Mar;61(3):345-9.

The present study was undertaken to determine the presence and predictors of the subclinical atherosclerosis in obese children.  

 

The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome using the National Cholesterol Educational Program and International Diabetes Federation definitions. 

Athyros VG, Ganotakis ES, Elisaf M, Mikhailidis DP.
Curr Med Res Opin. 2005 Aug;21(8):1157-9.

OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions, was compared in 9669 subjects, representing the Greek population... 

 

Fibrates: what have we learned in the past 40 years? 

Backes JM, Gibson CA, Ruisinger JF, Moriarty PM.
Pharmacotherapy. 2007 Mar;27(3):412-24.

The prominent use of fibric acid derivatives has lessened over the years because of unimpressive results in major clinical trials, safety concerns, and the emergence of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins).  

 

Fasting compared with nonfasting triglycerides and risk of cardiovascular events in women. 

Bansal S, Buring JE, Rifai N, Mora S, Sacks FM, Ridker PM.
JAMA. 2007 Jul 18;298(3):309-16.

CONTEXT: The association of triglycerides with incident cardiovascular disease remains controversial. Although triglyceride levels are typically obtained in the fasting state, postprandial hypertriglyceridemia may play an important role in atherosclerosis. 

 

Combined hyperlipidemia/hyperalphalipoproteinemia associated with premature spontaneous atherosclerosis in mice lacking hepatic lipase and low density lipoprotein receptor. 

Barcat D, Amadio A, Palos-Pinto A, Daret D, Benlian P, Darmon M, Berard AM.
zaAtherosclerosis. 2006 Oct;188(2):347-55. Epub 2005 Dec 27.

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Hepatic lipase (HL) is an enzyme which hydrolyzes triglycerides from plasma lipoproteins and thus takes part in the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein remnants and high density lipoproteins.  

 

The inflammation: lipoprotein cycle. 

Barter P.
Atheroscler Suppl. 2005 May;6(2):15-20.

The central roles played by lipoproteins in atherosclerosis are well established. Increased plasma concentrations of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and triglyceride-rich remnant lipoproteins are highly atherogenic, whereas high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are known to protect against lesion development. These effects are driven, in part, by the impact of these lipoproteins on inflammation-a process that is central to atherogenesis. 

 

All-cause and cardiovascular mortality using the different definitions of metabolic syndrome 

Benetos-Athanase, Thomas-Frederique, Pannier-Bruno, Bean-Kathy, Jego- Bertrand, Guize-Louis
The American journal of cardiology, {Am-J-Cardiol}, 15 Jul 2008 (epub: 28 May 2008), vol. 102, no. 2, p. 188-91, ISSN: 0002-9149, Fulltext since: 1995(75) -2008.

The aim of the present study was to assess the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in subjects identified as having metabolic syndrome (MS) using either the recent International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition or the revised National Cholesterol Educational Program (NCEP-R) definition, but not the original NCEP (2001) definition.  

 

Electronegative low-density lipoprotein subfraction from type 2 diabetic subjects is proatherogenic and unrelated to glycemic control. 

Benitez S, Perez A, Sanchez-Quesada JL, Wagner AM, Rigla M, Arcelus R, Jorba O, Ordonez-Llanos J.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2006 Apr 24; [Epub ahead of print]

BACKGROUND: The physicochemical and biological characteristics of electronegative low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (LDL(-)) from type 2 diabetic patients (DM2), before and after insulin therapy, were studied... 

 

Efficacy and safety of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol-increasing compounds: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. 

Birjmohun RS, Hutten BA, Kastelein JJ, Stroes ES.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Jan 18;45(2):185-97.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research was to estimate the efficacy and safety of current high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)-increasing drugs... 

 

Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention: systematic review and meta-analysis. 

Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Gluud LL, Simonetti RG, Gluud C.
JAMA. 2007 Feb 28;297(8):842-57.

CONTEXT: Antioxidant supplements are used for prevention of several diseases. 

 

Platelets, inflammation, and atherothrombotic neurovascular disease: the role of endothelial dysfunction. 

Blanco M, Rodriguez-Yanez M, Sobrino T, Leira R, Castillo J.
Cerebrovasc Dis. 2005;20 Suppl 2:32-9. Epub 2005 Dec 2.

The vascular endothelium is an indispensable organ in the regulation of tonicity and vascular homeostasis... 

 

Vitamin-mineral supplementation and the progression of atherosclerosis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. 

Bleys J, Miller ER 3rd, Pastor-Barriuso R, Appel LJ, Guallar E.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Oct;84(4):880-7; quiz 954-5.

BACKGROUND: Laboratory and observational studies suggest that antioxidant and B vitamin supplementation may prevent atherosclerosis. Although trials have not shown a benefit of these supplements on clinical cardiovascular events, it is unknown whether they affect the progression of atherosclerosis as measured by imaging techniques. 

 

Reduction in stroke with gemfibrozil in men with coronary heart disease and low HDL cholesterol: The Veterans Affairs HDL Intervention Trial (VA-HIT). 

Bloomfield Rubins H, Davenport J, Babikian V, Brass LM, Collins D, Wexler L, Wagner S, Papademetriou V, Rutan G, Robins SJ; VA-HIT Study Group.
Circulation. 2001 Jun 12;103(23):2828-33.

BACKGROUND: A low level of HDL cholesterol has been identified as a risk factor for stroke in observational studies... 

 

Effects of tomatoes on the lipid profile. 

Blum A, Merei M, Karem A, Blum N, Ben-Arzi S, Wirsansky I, Khazim K.
Clin Invest Med. 2006 Oct;29(5):298-300.

PURPOSE: The Mediterranean diet has been reported to reduce cardiovascular mortality and morbidity considerably. Tomatoes and lycopene are considered potent antioxidants. Our purpose was to study the effects of a tomatoe-rich diet on the lipid profile following 300g daily of tomatoes for one month. 

 

Inflammatory profile of oxidized phospholipids. 

Bochkov VN.
Thromb Haemost. 2007 Mar;97(3):348-54.

Lipid oxidation products and in particular oxidized phospholipids (OxPL) are increasingly recognized as inducers of chronic inflammation characteristic of atherosclerosis. 

 

Metabolic syndrome and echocardiographic left ventricular mass in blacks: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. 

Burchfiel CM, Skelton TN, Andrew ME, Garrison RJ, Arnett DK, Jones DW, Taylor HA Jr.
Circulation. 2005 Aug 9;112(6):819-27. Epub 2005 Aug 1.

The metabolic syndrome has been associated with cardiovascular disease, but few studies have examined its relationship with subclinical measures such as echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) mass. This relationship is likely to be of particular importance in blacks, in whom both the metabolic syndrome and LV hypertrophy are common. 

 

Type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk of coronary heart disease: results of the 10-year follow-up of the PROCAM study. 

Buyken AE, von Eckardstein A, Schulte H, Cullen P, Assmann G.
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2007 Apr;14(2):230-6.

BACKGROUND: American and European consensus opinions recommend that diabetes mellitus be regarded as a 'coronary risk equivalent', that is, as conferring the same risk of myocardial infarction as established coronary heart disease.  

 

Gemfibrozil decreases atherosclerosis in experimental diabetes in association with a reduction in oxidative stress and inflammation. 

Calkin AC, Cooper ME, Jandeleit-Dahm KA, Allen TJ.
Diabetologia. 2006 Apr;49(4):766-74. Epub 2006 Feb 4.

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: It is postulated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonists confer cardiovascular benefits in diabetes, independently of their effects on lipid metabolism... 

 

Gemfibrozil decreases atherosclerosis in experimental diabetes in association with a reduction in oxidative stress and inflammation. 

Calkin AC, Cooper ME, Jandeleit-Dahm KA, Allen TJ.
Diabetologia. 2006 Apr;49(4):766-74. Epub 2006 Feb 4.

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: It is postulated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonists confer cardiovascular benefits in diabetes, independently of their effects on lipid metabolism. We investigated putative mechanisms responsible for these anti-atherogenic effects in an in vivo model of diabetes-associated atherosclerosis... 

 

Coronary Heart Disease and Polymorphisms in Genes Affecting Lipid Metabolism and Inflammation. 

Cambien F.
Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2005 May;7(3):188-195.

Several biologic systems contribute to the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and its complications, and within each of these systems many genes have been explored to establish the possible implication of their variability in coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. This report is focused on recent results pertaining to lipid and inflammatory genes, their variability, and their relationship with intermediate phenotypes and CHD. 

 

The metabolic syndrome: prevalence in worldwide populations. 

Cameron AJ, Shaw JE, Zimmet PZ.
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2004 Jun;33(2):351-75, table of contents.

The concept of the metabolic syndrome has now been in existence for several decades; however, it has only been since some agreement on definitions of the syndrome was reached that it has been possible to compare the prevalence among populations worldwide.  

 

Apolipoprotein E polymorphism in diabetic and non-diabetic patients: does it really contribute to atherosclerosis? 

Camsari A, Tamer L, Aras Ates N, Pekdemir H, Cicek D, Ercan B, Camdeviren H, Atik U.
Acta Cardiol. 2005 Aug;60(4):409-14.

The exact mechanism of the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in type-2 diabetes is still undefined. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of apolipoprotein E (apo E) polymorphism and other factors on atherosclerotic vascular disease in type-2 diabetic patients. We also examined the association between apo E polymorphism and lipid profile in diabetic patients. 

 

Trends in serum lipids and lipoproteins of adults, 1960-2002. 

Carroll MD, Lacher DA, Sorlie PD, Cleeman JI, Gordon DJ, Wolz M, Grundy SM, Johnson CL.
JAMA. 2005 Oct 12;294(14):1773-81.

CONTEXT: Serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol contribute significantly to atherosclerosis and its clinical sequelae... 

 

Sizofreni hastalarinda metabolik sendrom sikligi ve iliskili etmenler 

Cerit-Cem, Ozten-Eylem, Yildiz-Mustafa
Tuerk psikiyatri dergisi = Turkish journal of psychiatry, {Turk- Psikiyatri-Derg}, Summer 2008, vol. 19, no. 2, p. 124-32, ISSN: 1300-2163.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and related factors in patients with schizophrenia at an outpatient clinic.  

 

Hypolipidemic therapy for the metabolic syndrome. 

Cignarella A, Bellosta S, Corsini A, Bolego C.
Pharmacol Res. 2006 Jun;53(6):492-500. Epub 2006 Mar 27.

The metabolic syndrome appears to affect a significant proportion of the population and is associated with increased risk for development of cardiovascular disease as well as of type-2 diabetes... 

 

PPARgamma-dependent effects of conjugated linoleic acid on the human glioblastoma cell line (ADF). 

Cimini A, Cristiano L, Colafarina S, Benedetti E, Di Loreto S, Festuccia C, Amicarelli F, Canuto RA, Ceru MP.
Int J Cancer. 2005 Dec 20;117(6):923-33.

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to exert beneficial effects against carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis and diabetes. It has been demonstrated that CLA modulates lipid metabolism through the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs)... 

 

Raising high-density lipoprotein with cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors. 

Clark RW.
Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2006 Apr;6(2):162-8. Epub 2006 Feb 17.

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) catalyzes the transfer of cholesteryl ester from high-density lipoprotein (HDL) to apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in exchange for triglyceride, and thereby plays a major role in lipoprotein metabolism... 

 

Raising high-density lipoprotein with cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors. 

Clark RW.
Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2006 Apr;6(2):162-8. Epub 2006 Feb 17.

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) catalyzes the transfer of cholesteryl ester from high-density lipoprotein (HDL) to apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in exchange for triglyceride, and thereby plays a major role in lipoprotein metabolism... 

 

Effects of aggressive versus conventional lipid-lowering therapy by simvastatin on human atherosclerotic lesions: a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. 

Corti R, Fuster V, Fayad ZA, Worthley SG, Helft G, Chaplin WF, Muntwyler J, Viles-Gonzalez JF, Weinberger J, Smith DA, Mizsei G, Badimon JJ.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Jul 5;46(1):106-12.

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to compare the effects of aggressive and conventional lipid lowering by two different dosages of the same statin on early human atherosclerotic lesions using serial noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)... 

 

Effect of rosuvastatin on progression of carotid intima-media thickness in low-risk individuals with subclinical atherosclerosis: the METEOR Trial. 

Crouse JR 3rd, Raichlen JS, Riley WA, Evans GW, Palmer MK, O'Leary DH, Grobbee DE, Bots ML; METEOR Study Group.
JAMA. 2007 Mar 28;297(12):1344-53. Epub 2007 Mar 25.

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether statin therapy could slow progression and/or cause regression of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) over 2 years. 

 

Combining serum biomarkers: the association of C-reactive protein, insulin sensitivity, and homocysteine with cardiovascular disease history in the general US population. 

Cummings DM, King DE, Mainous AG, Geesey ME.
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2006 Apr;13(2):180-5.

BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of serum biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and homocysteine have been independently associated with cardiovascular risk... 

 

Relation of omega-3 Fatty Acid intake to other dietary factors known to reduce coronary heart disease risk. 

Cundiff DK, Lanou AJ, Nigg CR.
Am J Cardiol. 2007 May 1;99(9):1230-3. Epub 2007 Mar 16.

Data supporting the inverse correlation of fish or long-chain omega-3 fatty acid (FA) (eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid) supplement consumption and coronary heart disease are inconclusive and may be confounded by other dietary and lifestyle factors. 

 

Global and regional mortality from ischaemic heart disease and stroke attributable to higher-than-optimum blood glucose concentration: comparative risk assessment. 

Danaei G, Lawes CM, Vander Hoorn S, Murray CJ, Ezzati M.
Lancet. 2006 Nov 11;368(9548):1651-9.

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular mortality risk increases continuously with blood glucose, from concentrations well below conventional thresholds used to define diabetes. We aimed to quantify population-level effects of all higher-than-optimum concentrations of blood glucose on mortality from ischaemic heart disease and stroke worldwide. 

 

Effect of ascorbic acid on prevention of hypercholesterolemia induced atherosclerosis. 

Das S, Ray R, Snehlata, Das N, Srivastava LM.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2006 Apr;285(1-2):143-7. Epub 2006 Feb 14.

The notion that oxidation of lipids and propagation of free radicals may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is supported by a large body of evidence... 

 

Role of ascorbic acid on in vitro oxidation of low-density lipoprotein derived from hypercholesterolemic patients. 

Das S, Snehlata, Das N, Srivastava LM.
Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Oct;372(1-2):202-5. Epub 2006 May 15.

BACKGROUND: The susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidation is thought to be a crucial factor responsible for atherogenesis. There is substantial evidence for a role of dietary antioxidants in the prevention of atherogenesis and the protective effect of antioxidant nutrients may be mediated through inhibition of the oxidative modification of LDL.  

 

Evidence for a Gene Influencing High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol on Chromosome 4q31.21. 

Dastani Z, Quiogue L, Plaisier C, Engert JC, Marcil M, Genest J, Pajukanta P.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Dec 1; [Epub ahead of print]

OBJECTIVE: A low level of plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a major risk factor for coronary atherosclerosis... 

 

Results of the National Cholesterol Education (NCEP) Program Evaluation ProjecT Utilizing Novel E-Technology (NEPTUNE) II survey and implications for treatment under the recent NCEP Writing Group recommendations. 

Davidson MH, Maki KC, Pearson TA, Pasternak RC, Deedwania PC, McKenney JM, Fonarow GC, Maron DJ, Ansell BJ, Clark LT, Ballantyne CM.
Am J Cardiol. 2005 Aug 15;96(4):556-63.

The most recent national survey of compliance with the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) guidelines was completed before ATP III and showed significant underachievement of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol goals. 

 

A proteomic study of the apolipoproteins in LDL subclasses in patients with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. 

Davidsson P, Hulthe J, Fagerberg B, Olsson BM, Hallberg C, Dahllof B, Camejo G.
J Lipid Res. 2005 Sep;46(9):1999-2006. Epub 2005 Jul 1.

The exchangeable apolipoproteins present in small, dense LDL (sdLDL) and large, buoyant LDL subclasses were evaluated with a quantitative proteomic approach in patients with the metabolic syndrome and with type 2 diabetes, both with subclinical atherosclerosis and the B LDL phenotype... 

 

The effect of diet on endothelial function. 

Davis N, Katz S, Wylie-Rosett J.
Cardiol Rev. 2007 Mar-Apr;15(2):62-6.

Endothelial dysfunction is an early precursor to atherosclerosis. Lifestyle interventions, including diet, have been shown to affect endothelial function.  

 

HDL oxidation compromises its influence on paraoxonase-1 secretion and its capacity to modulate enzyme activity. 

Deakin S, Moren X, James RW.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007 May;27(5):1146-52. Epub 2007 Mar 8.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the consequences of HDL oxidation for paraoxonase-1 metabolism and function. 

 

Metabolic syndrome in three ethnic groups using current definitions 

Delisle-Helene, Desilets-Marie-Claude, Vargas-Estanislao-Ramirez, Garrel-Dominique
Applied physiology nutrition and metabolism = Physiologie appliquee nutrition et metabolisme, {Appl-Physiol-Nutr-Metab}, Apr 2008, vol. 33, no. 2, p. 356-60, ISSN: 1715-5312.

According to two current definitions, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among black Haitians of Montreal was <20%, 30%-36% in Algonquin Indians of Quebec, and >45% in Mexicans of Oaxaca (all aged 35-60 y).  

 

Chocolate and prevention of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review. 

Ding EL, Hutfless SM, Ding X, Girotra S.
Nutr Metab (Lond). 2006 Jan 3;3:2.

ABSTRACT : BACKGROUND : Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids... 

 

Relating statin therapy to C-reactive protein levels. 

Doggrell SA.
Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2005 Aug;6(9):1597-600.

Inflammation is pivotal in atherosclerosis, and C-reactive protein (CRP) is an inflammatory marker that predicts cardiovascular events... 

 

The endothelial cholesterol efflux is promoted by the high-density lipoprotein anionic peptide factor. 

Domingo N, Mastellone I, Gres S, Marin V, Lorec AM, Tosini F, Grosclaude J, Farnarier C, Chanussot F.
Metabolism. 2005 Aug;54(8):1087-94.

The prevention of atherosclerosis depends on the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) capacity to stimulate the efflux of unesterified cholesterol (UC). We tested here the effects of 2 HDL apolipoproteins, apo A-I and the 7-kd anionic peptide factor (APF), on the UC efflux by human endothelial ECV 304 cells in culture. 

 

Lp(a) lipoprotein and lipids in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: serum levels and relationship to inflammation. 

Dursunoglu D, Evrengul H, Polat B, Tanriverdi H, Cobankara V, Kaftan A, Kilic M.
Rheumatol Int. 2005 May;25(4):241-245. Epub 2004 Jul 31.

OBJECTIVES: Changes in lipid profiles, Lp(a) lipoprotein, and acute phase reactants are associated with early atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The associations of Lp(a) levels with atherosclerotic disorders, diabetes, RA, and renal diseases suggest that Lp(a) might be involved in autoimmune reactions. METHODS: Eighty-seven women with RA diagnosed according to American Rheumatism Association criteria (mean age 45.4+/-9.4 years) were recruited and 50 healthy women (mean age 44+/-10.7 years) included as a control group. Serum Lp(a), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), and C-reactive protein levels were analyzed. 

 

High-dose zinc to terminate angina pectoris: A review and hypothesis for action by ICAM inhibition. 

Eby GA, Halcomb WW.
Med Hypotheses. 2005 Aug 3; [Epub ahead of print]

We reviewed the literature related to the effects of high-dose zinc in arteriosclerosis-induced angina pectoris. Lipid peroxidation and LDL oxidation are believed to be critical for arteriosclerosis, and consequently angina pectoris. Administration of biologically available zinc was a beneficial treatment in a significant percentage of patients with severely symptomatic, inoperable atherosclerotic disease. 

 

Effect of diet and omega-3 fatty acid intervention on asymmetric dimethylarginine. 

Eid HM, Arnesen H, Hjerkinn EM, Lyberg T, Ellingsen I, Seljeflot I.
Nutr Metab (Lond). 2006 Jan 5;3:4.

ABSTRACT : BACKGROUND AND AIM : Impaired vasodilatation has been suggested to be caused by inhibition of nitric oxide generation by the recently described asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). In the present study we wanted to explore whether n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation and/or diet intervention have beneficial influence on endothelial function assessed as plasma levels of ADMA and L-arginine... 

 

Serum lipids, lipid-lowering drugs, and the risk of breast cancer. 

Eliassen AH, Colditz GA, Rosner B, Willett WC, Hankinson SE.
Arch Intern Med. 2005 Oct 24;165(19):2264-71.

BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence suggests that statins protect against breast carcinogenesis by interrupting cell cycle progression and promoting apoptosis... 

 

Relation of the metabolic syndrome to calcified atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries and aorta. 

Ellison RC, Zhang Y, Wagenknecht LE, Eckfeldt JH, Hopkins PN, Pankow JS, Djousse L, Carr JJ.
Am J Cardiol. 2005 May 15;95(10):1180-6

The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hyperglycemia, high waist circumference, hypertension, and elevated triglycerides, and is associated with cardiovascular disease. 

 

Contribution of the metabolic syndrome to sudden death risk in asymptomatic men: the Paris Prospective Study I. 

Empana JP, Duciemetiere P, Balkau B, Jouven X.
Eur Heart J. 2007 May;28(9):1149-54. Epub 2007 Apr 11.

Aims To compare the risk of sudden death and non-sudden death from myocardial infarction associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in asymptomatic men.  

 

Sex related cardiovascular risk stratification based on quantification of atherosclerosis and inflammation. 

Erbel R, Mohlenkamp S, Lehmann N, Schmermund A, Moebus S, Stang A, Gronemeyer D, Seibel R, Mann K, Volbracht L, Dragano N, Siegrist J, Jockel KH; on behalf of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study Investigative Group.
Atherosclerosis. 2007 Mar 25; [Epub ahead of print]

OBJECTIVES: An ongoing population-based cohort study was used to assess the prevalence of risk factors, signs of inflammation based on the degree of high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and subclinical atherosclerosis using electron beam computed tomography for detection of coronary artery calcification (CAC). We evaluated the sex related cardiovascular risk stratification based on quantification of subclinical atherosclerosis and inflammation. 

 

Higher plasma docosahexaenoic acid is associated with reduced progression of coronary atherosclerosis in women with CAD. 

Erkkila AT, Matthan NR, Herrington DM, Lichtenstein AH.
J Lipid Res. 2006 Dec;47(12):2814-9. Epub 2006 Sep 18.

Fish intake, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and in some cases alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) have been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular events and death. The association between n-3 fatty acids in plasma lipids and the progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis was assessed among women with established coronary artery disease (CAD). 

 

Inflammation, atherosclerotic burden and cardiovascular prognosis. 

Espinola-Klein C, Rupprecht HJ, Bickel C, Lackner K, Schnabel R, Munzel T, Blankenberg S; for the AtheroGene Investigators.
Atherosclerosis. 2007 Mar 1; [Epub ahead of print]

 

 

Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. 

Falk E.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006 Apr 18;47(8 Suppl):C7-12.

Atherosclerosis is a multifocal, smoldering, immunoinflammatory disease of medium-sized and large arteries fuelled by lipids. Endothelial cells, leukocytes, and intimal smooth muscle cells are the major players in the development of this disease... 

 

Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. 

Falk E.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006 Apr 18;47(8 Suppl):C7-12.

Atherosclerosis is a multifocal, smoldering, immunoinflammatory disease of medium-sized and large arteries fuelled by lipids... 

 

Sex differences in the relation of HDL cholesterol to progression of carotid intima-media thickness: The Los Angeles Atherosclerosis Study. 

Fan AZ, Dwyer JH.
Atherosclerosis. 2007 May 3; [Epub ahead of print]

Epidemiologic studies have revealed that the protective association of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) with CHD is stronger in older men and younger women. 

 

Alcohol consumption and metabolic syndrome among Shanghai adults: a randomized multistage stratified cluster sampling investigation 

Fan-Jian-Gao, Cai-Xiao-Bu, Li-Lui, Li-Xing-Jian, Dai-Fei, Zhu-Jun
World journal of gastroenterology : WJG, {World-J-Gastroenterol}, 21 Apr 2008, vol. 14, no. 15, p. 2418-24, ISSN: 1007-9327

AIM: To examine the relations of alcohol consumption to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Shanghai adults. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from the randomized multistage stratified cluster sampling of Shanghai adults, who were evaluated for alcohol consumption and each component of metabolic syndrome, using the adapted U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program criteria.  

 

Relation between atherosclerosis risk factors and aspirin resistance in a primary prevention population. 

Faraday N, Becker DM, Yanek LR, Herrera-Galeano JE, Segal JB, Moy TF, Bray PF, Becker LC.
Am J Cardiol. 2006 Sep 15;98(6):774-9. Epub 2006 Jul 28.

Resistance to inhibition of platelet function by aspirin may contribute to future myocardial infarction and stroke. Adverse cardiovascular outcomes have been associated with aspirin resistance on several different platelet function assays, including the level of urinary 11-dehydro thromboxane B2 (Tx-M), platelet aggregation to arachidonic acid and adenosine diphosphate, and closure time on the platelet function analyzer-100.  

 

Effects of baseline level of triglycerides on changes in lipid levels from combined fluvastatin + fibrate (bezafibrate, fenofibrate, or gemfibrozil) 

Farnier M, Salko T, Isaacsohn JL, Troendle AJ, Dejager S, Gonasun L.
Am J Cardiol. 2003 Oct 1;92(7):794-7.

This analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of baseline triglyceride levels on lipid and lipoprotein changes after treatment with the combination of fluvastatin and fibrates.  

 

Platelet degranulation is associated with progression of intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. 

Fateh-Moghadam S, Li Z, Ersel S, Reuter T, Htun P, Plockinger U, Bocksch W, Dietz R, Gawaz M.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Jun;25(6):1299-303. Epub 2005 Apr 7.

BACKGROUND: Platelets play a key role in atherogenesis and thromboembolic complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. 

 

Structural modifications of HDL and functional consequences. 

Ferretti G, Bacchetti T, Negre-Salvayre A, Salvayre R, Dousset N, Curatola G.
Atherosclerosis. 2005 Sep 9; [Epub ahead of print]

High density lipoproteins (HDL) are susceptible to structural modifications mediated by various mechanisms including oxidation, glycation, homocysteinylation or enzymatic degradation. Structural alterations of HDL may affect their functional and atheroprotective properties. Oxidants, such as hypochlorous acid, peroxyl radicals, metal ions, peroxynitrite, lipoxygenases and smoke extracts, can alter both surface and core components of HDL. 

 

Progression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and fibrinogen levels in relation to incident type 2 diabetes. 

Festa A, Williams K, Tracy RP, Wagenknecht LE, Haffner SM.
Circulation. 2006 Apr 11;113(14):1753-9. Epub 2006 Apr 3.

BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that fibrinolytic and coagulation abnormalities as well as low-grade inflammation predict cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. We studied in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study the relation of incident diabetes to dynamic changes of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and fibrinogen... 

 

Prevalence of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome with alternative definitions of impaired fasting glucose. 

Ford ES, Abbasi F, Reaven GM.
Atherosclerosis. 2005 Jul;181(1):143-8. Epub 2005 Feb 12.

We sought to evaluate the effect of the new definition of impaired fasting glucose (IFG = fasting glucose concentration 100-125 mg/dL among people without diabetes) on the ability to identify insulin resistance, as well as the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy individuals... 

 

Risks for All-Cause Mortality, Cardiovascular Disease, and Diabetes Associated With the Metabolic Syndrome: A summary of the evidence. 

Ford ES.
Diabetes Care. 2005 Jul;28(7):1769-78.

OBJECTIVE: In recent years, several major organizations have endorsed the concept of the metabolic syndrome and developed working definitions for it. How well these definitions predict the risk for adverse events in people with the metabolic syndrome is only now being learned... 

 

Risks for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes associated with the metabolic syndrome: a summary of the evidence. 

Ford ES.
Diabetes Care. 2005 Jul;28(7):1769-78.

OBJECTIVE: In recent years, several major organizations have endorsed the concept of the metabolic syndrome and developed working definitions for it. How well these definitions predict the risk for adverse events in people with the metabolic syndrome is only now being learned... 

 

Genetics of macrovascular complications in diabetes. 

Fumeron F, Reis AF, Velho G.
Curr Diab Rep. 2006 Apr;6(2):162-8.

Diabetic patients have a threefold higher risk of developing atherosclerosis and its clinical complications compared with nondiabetic individuals... 

 

Genetics of macrovascular complications in diabetes. 

Fumeron F, Reis AF, Velho G.
Curr Diab Rep. 2006 Apr;6(2):162-8.

Diabetic patients have a threefold higher risk of developing atherosclerosis and its clinical complications compared with nondiabetic individuals. 

 

Impact of oxidized low density lipoprotein on vascular cells. 

Galle J, Hansen-Hagge T, Wanner C, Seibold S.
Atherosclerosis. 2006 Apr;185(2):219-26. Epub 2005 Nov 8.

Oxidized LDL (OxLDL) is a proatherogenic lipoprotein, accumulating in the vascular wall and contributing to the pathogenesis of vascular dysfunction early in the development of atherosclerosis... 

 

Impact of oxidized low density lipoprotein on vascular cells. 

Galle J, Hansen-Hagge T, Wanner C, Seibold S.
Atherosclerosis. 2006 Apr;185(2):219-26. Epub 2005 Nov 8.

Oxidized LDL (OxLDL) is a proatherogenic lipoprotein, accumulating in the vascular wall and contributing to the pathogenesis of vascular dysfunction early in the development of atherosclerosis... 

 

Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial. 

Gardner CD, Lawson LD, Block E, Chatterjee LM, Kiazand A, Balise RR, Kraemer HC.
Arch Intern Med. 2007 Feb 26;167(4):346-53.

 

 

Adult obesity at the beginning of the 21st century: epidemiology, pathophysiology and health risk 

Ginter-E, Simko-V
Bratislavske lekarske listy, {Bratisl-Lek-Listy}, 2008, vol. 109, no. 5, p. 224-30, 29 refs, ISSN: 0006-9248

Obesity is defined as increased body weight caused by excessive accumulation of fat. Due to a very long period of undernutrition in human history, the contemporary human body regulation mechanisms seem to be biased in favor of preserving fat rather to eliminate it 

 

Intra-abdominal fat and metabolic syndrome are associated with larger infrarenal aortic diameters in patients with clinically evident arterial disease 

Gorter-Petra-M, Visseren-Frank-L-J, Moll-Frans-L, van-der-Graaf- Yolanda.
Journal of vascular surgery : official publication the Society for Vascular Surgery

 

 

The key role of apolipoprotein E in atherosclerosis. 

Greenow K, Pearce NJ, Ramji DP.
J Mol Med. 2005 May;83(5):329-342. Epub 2005 Apr 13.

Apolipoprotein E is a multifunctional protein that is synthesized by the liver and several peripheral tissues and cell types, including macrophages. The protein is involved in the efficient hepatic uptake of lipoprotein particles, stimulation of cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells in the atherosclerotic lesion, and the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses. 

 

Plasma insulin levels predict atherosclerotic lesion burden in obese hyperlipidemic mice. 

Gruen ML, Saraswathi V, Nuotio-Antar AM, Plummer MR, Coenen KR, Hasty AH.
Atherosclerosis. 2005 Aug 12; [Epub ahead of print]

Despite a clear association between obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in humans, to date, no animal models have been described in which insulin resistance is associated with atherosclerotic lesion burden. Using two mouse models of obesity-induced hyperlipidemia:leptin deficient (ob/ob) mice on an apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE(-/-)) or low density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLR(-/-)) background, we sought to determine metabolic parameters most closely associated with atherosclerotic lesion burden. 

 

Effectiveness and tolerability of simvastatin plus fenofibrate for combined hyperlipidemia (the SAFARI trial). 

Grundy SM, Vega GL, Yuan Z, Battisti WP, Brady WE, Palmisano J.
Am J Cardiol. 2005 Feb 15;95(4):462-8.

Patients with combined hyperlipidemia (elevated triglyceride [TG] levels, elevated low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, and multiple lipoprotein abnormalities) are at increased risk for coronary heart disease... 

 

Stanol esters as a component of maximal dietary therapy in the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III report. 

Grundy SM.
Am J Cardiol. 2005 Jul 4;96(1A):47D-50D.

Use of plant stanols/sterols in forms that are sufficiently bioavailable for therapeutic effect should be a key element of maximal dietary therapy... 

 

Development of overweight in an atherosclerosis prevention trial starting in early childhood. The STRIP study. 

Hakanen M, Lagstrom H, Kaitosaari T, Niinikoski H, Nanto-Salonen K, Jokinen E, Sillanmaki L, Viikari J, Ronnemaa T, Simell O.
Int J Obes (Lond). 2006 Apr;30(4):618-26.

CONTEXT: Recent data indicate a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity among school-aged children. Thus, efficacious programmes that prevent overweight development in children are urgently needed... 

 

Development of overweight in an atherosclerosis prevention trial starting in early childhood. The STRIP study. 

Hakanen M, Lagstrom H, Kaitosaari T, Niinikoski H, Nanto-Salonen K, Jokinen E, Sillanmaki L, Viikari J, Ronnemaa T, Simell O.
Int J Obes (Lond). 2006 Apr;30(4):618-26.

CONTEXT: Recent data indicate a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity among school-aged children. Thus, efficacious programmes that prevent overweight development in children are urgently needed... 

 

The role of resistin in obesity-induced insulin resistance. 

Haluzik M, Haluzikova D.
Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2006 Apr;7(4):306-11.

Resistin is a 12.5-kDa polypeptide hormone produced by adipocytes and immunocompetent cells... 

 

Kardiometabolický syndrom - průvodce ošetřujícího lékaře 

Hana Rosolová

 

 

Preventivní kardiologie v kostce 

Hana Rosolová a kol.

 

 

Antioxidant vitamin intake and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. 

Hatzigeorgiou C, Taylor AJ, Feuerstein IM, Bautista L, O'Malley PG.
Prev Cardiol. 2006 Spring;9(2):75-81.

Numerous studies have evaluated the association between antioxidants and coronary atherosclerosis but have been limited by its study among individuals with advanced atherosclerosis... 

 

Cost effectiveness of treating low HDL-cholesterol in the primary prevention of coronary heart disease. 

Hay JW, Sterling KL.
Pharmacoeconomics. 2005;23(2):133-41.

BACKGROUND: A low serum level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Fibrates, particularly gemfibrozil, have been shown to raise HDL-cholesterol levels and reduce the incidence of CHD. The literature on fibrate cost effectiveness is quite limited... 

 

NPC1L1 haplotype is associated with inter-individual variation in plasma low-density lipoprotein response to ezetimibe. 

Hegele RA, Guy J, Ban MR, Wang J.
Lipids Health Dis. 2005 Aug 12;4:16.

NPC1L1 encodes a putative intestinal sterol transporter which is the likely target for ezetimibe, a new type of lipid-lowering medication. We previously reported rare non-synonymous mutations in NPC1L1 in an individual who had no plasma lipoprotein response to ezetimibe. We next hypothesized that common variants in NPC1L1 would underlie less extreme inter-individual variations in the plasma LDL cholesterol response to ezetimibe. 

 

Genetic and physiological insights into the metabolic syndrome. 

Hegele RA, Pollex RL.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005 May 12

The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a common phenotype that is clinically defined by threshold values applied to measures of central obesity, dysglycemia, dyslipidemia and/or elevated blood pressure, which must be present concurrently in any one of variety of combinations. Insulin resistance, while not a defining component of the MetS, is nonetheless considered to be a core feature. MetS is important because it is rapidly growing in prevalence and is strongly related to the development of cardiovascular disease. 

 

Genetic and physiological insights into the metabolic syndrome. 

Hegele RA, Pollex RL.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005 Sep;289(3):R663-9. Epub 2005 May 12.

The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a common phenotype that is clinically defined by threshold values applied to measures of central obesity, dysglycemia, dyslipidemia, and/or elevated blood pressure, which must be present concurrently in any one of a variety of combinations. Insulin resistance, although not a defining component of the MetS, is nonetheless considered to be a core feature. MetS is important because it is rapidly growing in prevalence and is strongly related to the development of cardiovascular disease. 

 

Oxidative stress and vascular disease: 2005 Duff lecture. 

Heistad DD.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006 Apr;26(4):689-95. Epub 2006 Jan 12.

There is compelling evidence that oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathophysiology of several major cardiovascular diseases. In atherosclerosis, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, and heart failure, expression of superoxide is increased in blood vessels, and endothelial vasomotor function is impaired, presumably caused in large part by inactivation of nitric oxide by superoxide... 

 

Modification of the NCEP ATP III definitions of the metabolic syndrome for use in Asians identifies individuals at risk of ischemic heart disease. 

Heng D, Ma S, Lee JJ, Tai BC, Mak KH, Hughes K, Chew SK, Chia KS, Tan CE, Tai ES.
Atherosclerosis. 2005 Aug 17; [Epub ahead of print]

The association between the metabolic syndrome (MS) to ischemic heart disease (IHD) has not been established prospectively in Asian populations... 

 

PPARalpha, but not PPARgamma, activators decrease macrophage-laden atherosclerotic lesions in a nondiabetic mouse model of mixed dyslipidemia. 

Hennuyer N, Tailleux A, Torpier G, Mezdour H, Fruchart JC, Staels B, Fievet C.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Sep;25(9):1897-902. Epub 2005 Jun 30.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha and gamma are nuclear receptors that may modulate atherogenesis, not only by correcting metabolic disorders predisposing to atherosclerosis but also by directly acting at the level of the vascular wall. The accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages in the arterial wall is an early pivotal event participating in the initiation and promotion of atherosclerotic lesion formation. Because PPARalpha and gamma modulate macrophage gene expression and cellular function, it has been suggested that their ligands may modulate atherosclerosis development via direct effects on macrophages. In this report, we investigated the effect of a PPARalpha ligand (fenofibrate) and 2 PPARgamma ligands (rosiglitazone and pioglitazone) on atherogenesis in a dyslipidemic nondiabetic murine model that develops essentially macrophage-laden lesions. 

 

The relationship between oxidized LDL and other cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical CVD in different ethnic groups: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). 

Holvoet P, Jenny NS, Schreiner PJ, Tracy RP, Jacobs DR; for the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis. 2006 Sep 16; [Epub ahead of print]

Several groups have demonstrated an association between established CHD and elevated oxidized LDL (oxLDL). The relation with cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical CVD is less clear. 

 

Abdominal fat distribution and functional limitations and disability in a biracial cohort: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. 

Houston DK, Stevens J, Cai J.
Int J Obes (Lond). 2005 Dec;29(12):1457-63.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of abdominal fat and obesity with functional limitations and disability in late adulthood... 

 

Low-fat dietary pattern and weight change over 7 years: the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial. 

Howard BV, Manson JE, Stefanick ML, Beresford SA, Frank G, Jones B, Rodabough RJ, Snetselaar L, Thomson C, Tinker L, Vitolins M, Prentice R.
JAMA. 2006 Jan 4;295(1):39-49.

CONTEXT: Obesity in the United States has increased dramatically during the past several decades. There is debate about optimum calorie balance for prevention of weight gain, and proponents of some low-carbohydrate diet regimens have suggested that the increasing obesity may be attributed, in part, to low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets... 

 

Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its relation to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in nondiabetic European men and women. 

Hu G, Qiao Q, Tuomilehto J, Balkau B, Borch-Johnsen K, Pyorala K; DECODE Study Group.
Arch Intern Med. 2004 May 24;164(10):1066-76.

BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the associations between the metabolic syndrome (by any definition) and mortality. This study examined the age- and sex-specific prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its association with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in nondiabetic European men and women. 

 

Effects of systemic inflammation on endothelium-dependent vasodilation. 

Huang AL, Vita JA.
Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2006 Jan;16(1):15-20.

The importance of inflammation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is well established. The vascular endothelium contributes to and is affected by the inflammatory process... 

 

Plasma interleukin (IL)-18 concentrations is elevated in patients with previous myocardial infarction and related to severity of coronary atherosclerosis independently of C-reactive protein and IL-6. 

Hulthe J, McPheat W, Samnegard A, Tornvall P, Hamsten A, Eriksson P.
Atherosclerosis. 2006 Jan 4; [Epub ahead of print]

AIM: Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine with a central role in the inflammatory cascade. In the present study, we investigated whether patients with precocious myocardial infarction have higher plasma IL-18 concentrations than matched controls... 

 

Plasma interleukin (IL)-18 concentrations is elevated in patients with previous myocardial infarction and related to severity of coronary atherosclerosis independently of C-reactive protein and IL-6. 

Hulthe J, McPheat W, Samnegard A, Tornvall P, Hamsten A, Eriksson P.
Atherosclerosis. 2006 Oct;188(2):450-4. Epub 2006 Jan 6.

AIM: Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine with a central role in the inflammatory cascade. In the present study, we investigated whether patients with precocious myocardial infarction have higher plasma IL-18 concentrations than matched controls. 

 

Kidney in early atherosclerosis. 

Chade AR, Lerman A, Lerman LO.
Hypertension. 2005 Jun;45(6):1042-9. Epub 2005 May 16.

Atherosclerosis represents one of the major causes of premature death in the United States today, and it is frequently associated with, exacerbates, and is aggravated by chronic kidney disease (CKD). Atherosclerosis integrates the response to a number of insults, and consequently, the accelerated atherosclerosis found in CKD patients is associated with activation of a variety of humoral and tissue mechanisms. 

 

Fibrates in 2003: therapeutic action in atherogenic dyslipidaemia and future perspectives. 

Chapman MJ.
Atherosclerosis. 2003 Nov;171(1):1-13.

OBJECTIVES: To explore the therapeutic potential of fibrates to attenuate premature atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease in the atherogenic dyslipidemias typical of Type II diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, and the Type IIB (mixed) lipid phenotype; such dyslipidemias frequently feature peripheral insulinoresistance... 

 

Effect of parental coronary artery disease on adverse effects of the metabolic syndrome and aging on carotid artery intima-media thickness (from the Bogalusa Heart Study) 

Chen-Wei, Srinivasan-Sathanur-R, Xu-Jihua, Berenson-Gerald-S
The American journal of cardiology, {Am-J-Cardiol}, 15 Jul 2008 (epub: 28 May 2008), vol. 102, no. 2, p. 180-3, ISSN: 0002-9149, Fulltext since: 1995(75) -2008.

Genetic susceptibility is considered an important predictor of coronary artery disease (CAD) and its risk factors. This study was conducted to assess the hypothesis that parental CAD, a surrogate measure of genetic susceptibility, increases the vulnerability of the arterial wall to adverse effects of the metabolic syndrome and the aging process in asymptomatic young adults.  

 

PPARs as targets for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. 

Cheng PT, Mukherjee R.
Mini Rev Med Chem. 2005 Aug;5(8):741-53.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) alpha, gamma and delta (beta) are ligand-activated transcription factors of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily which have been shown to play key roles in maintaining glucose and lipid homeostasis... 

 

Interleukin-6 gene polymorphism is an age-dependent risk factor for myocardial infarction in men. 

Chiappelli M, Tampieri C, Tumini E, Porcellini E, Caldarera CM, Nanni S, Branzi A, Lio D, Caruso M, Hoffmann E, Caruso C, Licastro F.
Int J Immunogenet. 2005 Dec;32(6):349-53.

Several studies show that inflammatory components may contribute to atherosclerosis and increase the risk for myocardial infarction (MI)... 

 

Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in individuals with hyperuricemia. 

Choi HK, Ford ES.
Am J Med. 2007 May;120(5):442-7.

PURPOSE: The link between hyperuricemia and insulin resistance has been noted, but the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by recent definitions among individuals with hyperuricemia remains unclear. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome according to serum uric acid levels in a nationally representative sample of US adults.  

 

Fatty acid-induced changes in vascular reactivity in healthy adult rats. 

Christon R, Marette A, Badeau M, Bourgoin F, Melancon S, Bachelard H.
Metabolism. 2005 Dec;54(12):1600-1609.

Dietary fatty acids (FAs) are known to modulate endothelial dysfunction, which is the first stage of atherosclerosis... 

 

A mathematical model of atherogenesis as an inflammatory response. 

Ibragimov AI, McNeal CJ, Ritter LR, Walton JR.
Math Med Biol. 2005 Dec;22(4):305-33. Epub 2005 Sep 14.

We construct a mathematical model of the early formation of an atherosclerotic lesion based on a simplification of Russell Ross' paradigm of atherosclerosis as a chronic inflammatory response... 

 

The metabolic syndrome is a stronger risk factor for early carotid atherosclerosis in women than in men. 

Iglseder B, Cip P, Malaimare L, Ladurner G, Paulweber B.
Stroke. 2005 Jun;36(6):1212-7. Epub 2005 May 12.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with an increased risk for subsequent development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. Type 2 diabetes increases the risk of stroke and coronary heart disease in women to a greater extent than in men, and thus the question arises whether there are sex differences in the association of early atherosclerosis and MetS. METHODS: 1588 middle-aged Austrian subjects (1001 males, 587 females) were included in the present study. 

 

Procalcitonin, c-reactive protein and neopterin levels in patients with coronary atherosclerosis. 

Ilhan F, Akbulut H, Karaca I, Godekmerdan A, Ilkay E, Bulut V.
Acta Cardiol. 2005 Aug;60(4):361-5.

Recent studies demonstrate that the serum inflammatory markers increase in patients with atherosclerosis. We aimed to assess whether a difference exists between patients with acute coronary syndrome and patients with stable angina pectoris in respect to serum neopterin, procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. 

 

Plasma adiponectin levels in postmenopausal women with or without long-term hormone therapy. 

Im JA, Lee JW, Lee HR, Lee DC.
Maturitas. 2006 Apr 20;54(1):65-71. Epub 2005 Sep 29.

OBJECTIVE: Recent large, prospective, randomized studies show that hormone therapy (HT) does not confer a protective effect against cardiovascular disease (CVD) but may in fact increase cardiovascular events... 

 

Plasma adiponectin levels in postmenopausal women with or without long-term hormone therapy. 

Im JA, Lee JW, Lee HR, Lee DC.
Maturitas. 2006 Apr 20;54(1):65-71. Epub 2005 Sep 29.

OBJECTIVE: Recent large, prospective, randomized studies show that hormone therapy (HT) does not confer a protective effect against cardiovascular disease (CVD) but may in fact increase cardiovascular events. Low plasma adiponectin levels are considered to be related to the development of atherosclerosis and CVD. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of long-term hormone therapy on plasma adiponectin levels in postmenopausal women... 

 

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha and atherosclerosis: from basic mechanisms to clinical implications. 

Israelian-Konaraki Z, Reaven PD.
Cardiol Rev. 2005 Sep-Oct;13(5):240-6.

Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process, triggered by the presence of lipids in the vascular wall, and encompasses a complex interaction among inflammatory cells, vascular elements, and lipoproteins through expression of several adhesion molecules and cytokines. Activation of the nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha), has been demonstrated to modulate many aspects of lipoprotein metabolism and inflammation in vitro as well as in animal and human studies. 

 

Safety considerations with gastrointestinally active lipid-lowering drugs. 

Jacobson TA, Armani A, McKenney JM, Guyton JR.
Am J Cardiol. 2007 Mar 19;99(6A):47C-55C. Epub 2006 Nov 29.

Gastrointestinally active agents such as cholesterol absorption inhibitors (CAIs) (eg, ezetimibe) and bile acid sequestrants (BAS) (the resins cholestyramine and colestipol, or colesevelam, a nonabsorbable polymer) offer important options for lipid-lowering therapy.  

 

The obesity epidemic, metabolic syndrome and future prevention strategies. 

James PT, Rigby N, Leach R; International Obesity Task Force.
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2004 Feb;11(1):3-8.

The epidemic of obesity and overweight poses a major challenge to the prevention of chronic noncommunicable diseases throughout the world. In some developing countries it presents a double burden alongside enduring problems of undernutrition. 

 

Oxidative stress and diabetic cardiovascular complications. 

Jay D, Hitomi H, Griendling KK.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2006 Jan 15;40(2):183-92. Epub 2005 Nov 10.

Diabetes diagnoses are increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. The majority of diabetes-related deaths arise from cardiovascular complications such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease... 

 

Effect of modified C-reactive protein on complement activation: a possible complement regulatory role of modified or monomeric C-reactive protein in atherosclerotic lesions. 

Ji SR, Wu Y, Potempa LA, Liang YH, Zhao J.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006 Apr;26(4):935-41. Epub 2006 Feb 2.

OBJECTIVE: The capacity of human C-reactive protein (CRP) to activate/regulate complement may be an important characteristic that links CRP and inflammation with atherosclerosis... 

 

Elevated high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are protective against plaque progression: a follow-up study of 1952 persons with carotid atherosclerosis the Tromso study. 

Johnsen SH, Mathiesen EB, Fosse E, Joakimsen O, Stensland-Bugge E, Njolstad I, Arnesen E.
Circulation. 2005 Jul 26;112(4):498-504. Epub 2005 Jul 18.

BACKGROUND: There is an inverse relationship between HDL cholesterol and coronary heart disease... 

 

Aerobic exercise training reduces hepatic and visceral lipids in obese individuals without weight loss.  

Johnson NA, Sachinwalla T, Walton DW, Smith K, Armstrong A, Thompson MW, George J.
Hepatology 2009;50:1105-12

 

 

Development of age-specific adolescent metabolic syndrome criteria that are linked to the Adult Treatment Panel III and International Diabetes Federation criteria. 

Jolliffe CJ, Janssen I.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007 Feb 27;49(8):891-8. Epub 2007 Feb 9

OBJECTIVES: The study objectives were to develop age-specific adolescent metabolic syndrome (MetS) criteria that were linked to the health-based Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) adult criteria. 

 

Genetics of metabolic syndrome: is there a role for phenomics? 

Joy-Tisha, Hegele-Robert-A
Current atherosclerosis reports, {Curr-Atheroscler-Rep}, Jun 2008, vol. 10, no. 3, p. 201-8, 50 refs, ISSN: 1534-6242.

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a common complex trait consisting of the clustering of abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and dysglycemia. MetS is found in about 25% of the population in the United States and is associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. 

 

Influence of HDL cholesterol on preclinical carotid atherosclerosis in familial hypercholesterolemia. 

Junyent M, Cofan M, Nunez I, Gilabert R, Zambon D, Ros E.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006 May;26(5):1107-13. Epub 2006 Mar 23.

OBJECTIVE: The effect of risk factors on carotid atherosclerosis in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is unclear. We evaluated carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) by sonography in relation to classical and emergent risk factors in a large FH cohort... 

 

Influence of HDL cholesterol on preclinical carotid atherosclerosis in familial hypercholesterolemia. 

Junyent M, Cofan M, Nunez I, Gilabert R, Zambon D, Ros E.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006 May;26(5):1107-13. Epub 2006 Mar 23.

OBJECTIVE: The effect of risk factors on carotid atherosclerosis in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is unclear. We evaluated carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) by sonography in relation to classical and emergent risk factors in a large FH cohort... 

 

Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome 

K.G.M.M. Alberti, Robert H. Eckel, Scott M. Grundy, Paul Z. Zimmet, James I. Cleeman, Karen A. Donato, Jean-Charles Fruchart, W. Philip T. James, Catherine M. Loria and Sidney C. Smith, Jr
Oct 5, 2009;

A Joint Interim Statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity 

 

Proteome analysis of human monocytic THP-1 cells primed with oxidized low-density lipoproteins. 

Kang JH, Kim HT, Choi MS, Lee WH, Huh TL, Park YB, Moon BJ, Kwon OS.
Proteomics. 2006 Feb;6(4):1261-73.

Native low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and oxidized LDL (oxLDL) possess a wide variety of biological properties, and play a central role in atherogenesis. In this study, we used a proteomic analysis of human monocyte THP-1 cells induced with oxLDL or with LDL, to identify proteins potentially involved in atherosclerotic processes... 

 

The relationships of plasma adiponectin with a favorable lipid profile, decreased inflammation, and less ectopic fat accumulation depend on adiposity. 

Kantartzis K, Rittig K, Balletshofer B, Machann J, Schick F, Porubska K, Fritsche A, Haring HU, Stefan N.
Clin Chem. 2006 Oct;52(10):1934-42. Epub 2006 Aug 17.

BACKGROUND: The metabolic effects of adiponectin, including insulin sensitivity, seem to become stronger with increasing adiposity. Adiposity may also affect the relationship of adiponectin concentrations with serum lipid profile; markers of inflammation, atherosclerosis, and endothelial function; and ectopic fat accumulation. 

 

In vivo antiatherogenic properties of olive oil and its constituent lipid classes in hyperlipidemic rabbits. 

Karantonis HC, Antonopoulou S, Perrea DN, Sokolis DP, Theocharis SE, Kavantzas N, Iliopoulos DG, Demopoulos CA.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2006 Apr;16(3):174-85. Epub 2005 Dec 13.

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The consumption of olive oil has been associated with lower incidence of cardiovascular disease in the Mediterranean countries... 

 

Relationship between the metabolic syndrome and physical activity energy expenditure: a MONET study 

Karelis-Antony-D, Lavoie-Marie-Eve, Messier-Virginie, Mignault-Diane, Garrel-Dominique, Prud-homme-Denis, Rabasa-Lhoret-Remi
Applied physiology nutrition and metabolism = Physiologie appliquee nutrition et metabolisme, {Appl-Physiol-Nutr-Metab}, Apr 2008, vol. 33, no. 2, p. 309-14, ISSN: 1715-5312

The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in overweight and obese sedentary postmenopausal women.  

 

Abdominal obesity predicts declining insulin sensitivity in non-obese normoglycaemics: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS). 

Karter AJ, D'Agostino RB Jr, Mayer-Davis EJ, Wagenknecht LE, Hanley AJ, Hamman RF, Bergman R, Saad MF, Haffner SM; IRAS investigators.
Diabetes Obes Metab. 2005 May;7(3):230-8.

AIM: Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated a relationship between obesity and insulin sensitivity (S(I)); however, there is a lack of evidence from longitudinal studies. METHODS: The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) estimated S(I) (x10(-4)/min.microU/ml) directly using a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test with minimal model analysis in 504 normoglycaemic subjects. 

 

Micronised fenofibrate: an updated review of its clinical efficacy in the management of dyslipidaemia. 

Keating GM, Ormrod D.
Drugs. 2002;62(13):1909-44.

Micronised fenofibrate is a synthetic phenoxy-isobutyric acid derivative (fibric acid derivative) indicated for the treatment of dyslipidaemia. Recently, a new tablet formulation of micronised fenofibrate has become available with greater bioavailability than the older capsule formulation... 

 

Effects of long-term fenofibrate therapy on cardiovascular events in 9795 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (the FIELD study): randomised controlled trial. 

Keech A, Simes RJ, Barter P, Best J, Scott R, Taskinen MR, Forder P, Pillai A, Davis T, Glasziou P, Drury P, Kesaniemi YA, Sullivan D, Hunt D, Colman P, d'Emden M, Whiting M, Ehnholm C, Laakso M; FIELD study investigators.
Lancet. 2005 Nov 26;366(9500):1849-61.

BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, partly owing to dyslipidaemia, which can be amenable to fibrate therapy... 

 

The dyslipidemia of diabetes mellitus: giving triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol a higher priority? 

Kendall DM.
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2005 Mar;34(1):27-48.

CVD is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in patients who have diabetes mellitus. Most such patients have at least one lipid abnormality.  

 

Reciprocal relationships between insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction: molecular and pathophysiological mechanisms. 

Kim JA, Montagnani M, Koh KK, Quon MJ.
Circulation. 2006 Apr 18;113(15):1888-904.

Endothelial dysfunction contributes to cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease, which are also characterized by insulin resistance... 

 

Reciprocal relationships between insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction: molecular and pathophysiological mechanisms. 

Kim JA, Montagnani M, Koh KK, Quon MJ.
Circulation. 2006 Apr 18;113(15):1888-904.

Endothelial dysfunction contributes to cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease, which are also characterized by insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is a hallmark of metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity, which are also characterized by endothelial dysfunction... 

 

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibition beyond raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels: pathways by which modulation of CETP activity may alter atherogenesis. 

Klerkx AH, El Harchaoui K, van der Steeg WA, Boekholdt SM, Stroes ES, Kastelein JJ, Kuivenhoven JA.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006 Apr;26(4):706-15. Epub 2006 Jan 26.

Raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a promising strategy in the struggle to prevent cardiovascular disease, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors have been developed to accomplish this... 

 

Efficacy and Safety of Atorvastatin in the Prevention of Cardiovascular End Points in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes: The Atorvastatin Study for Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease Endpoints in Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (ASPEN). 

Knopp RH, d'Emden M, Smilde JG, Pocock SJ.
Diabetes Care. 2006 Jul;29(7):1478-85.

OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is increased in type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 10 mg of atorvastatin versus placebo on CVD prevention in subjects with type 2 diabetes and LDL cholesterol levels below contemporary guideline targets... 

 

Endothelial lipase modulates HDL but has no effect on atherosclerosis development in apoE-/- and LDLR-/- mice. 

Ko KW, Paul A, Ma K, Li L, Chan L.
J Lipid Res. 2005 Dec;46(12):2586-94. Epub 2005 Sep 30.

Endothelial lipase (EL) is a determinant of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level, which is negatively correlated with atherosclerosis susceptibility... 

 

Significance of small dense low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations in relation to the severity of coronary heart diseases. 

Koba S, Hirano T, Ito Y, Tsunoda F, Yokota Y, Ban Y, Iso Y, Suzuki H, Katagiri T.
Atherosclerosis. 2006 Jan 12; [Epub ahead of print]

We have investigated the clinical significance of small dense low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (sd-LDL-C) concentrations in coronary heart disease (CHD). We measured the LDL size by gradient gel electrophoresis and quantified sd-LDL-C concentrations by a newly developed rapid assay using heparin-magnesium precipitation in 225 consecutive CHD patients without any lipid-lowering medication and 142 healthy middle-aged subjects as controls... 

 

Systemic low-grade inflammation and risk of coronary heart disease: results from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg cohort studies. 

Koenig W, Meisinger C, Baumert J, Khuseyinova N, Lowel H.
Gesundheitswesen. 2005 Aug;67 Suppl 1:S62-7.

Atherosclerosis is characterised by a non-specific local inflammatory process accompanied by a systemic response... 

 

Elevated levels of remnant lipoproteins are associated with plasma platelet microparticles in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus without obstructive coronary artery disease. 

Koga H, Sugiyama S, Kugiyama K, Fukushima H, Watanabe K, Sakamoto T, Yoshimura M, Jinnouchi H, Ogawa H.
Eur Heart J. 2006 Apr;27(7):817-23. Epub 2006 Jan 24.

AIMS: Platelets participate in the pathogenesis of arterial thrombosis and it has been demonstrated that enhanced platelet activation occurs in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM)... 

 

Elevated levels of remnant lipoproteins are associated with plasma platelet microparticles in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus without obstructive coronary artery disease. 

Koga H, Sugiyama S, Kugiyama K, Fukushima H, Watanabe K, Sakamoto T, Yoshimura M, Jinnouchi H, Ogawa H.
Eur Heart J. 2006 Apr;27(7):817-23. Epub 2006 Jan 24.

AIMS: Platelets participate in the pathogenesis of arterial thrombosis and it has been demonstrated that enhanced platelet activation occurs in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Dyslipidaemia is a common feature of diabetes. We investigated the association between certain lipid fractions and plasma platelet-derived microparticle (PMP) levels in patients with type-2 DM... 

 

Inflammatory markers and the metabolic syndrome: insights from therapeutic interventions. 

Koh KK, Han SH, Quon MJ.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Dec 6;46(11):1978-85. Epub 2005 Nov 9.

Inflammation in the vasculature might be an important pathogenic link between cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome... 

 

Additive beneficial effects of fenofibrate combined with atorvastatin in the treatment of combined hyperlipidemia. 

Koh KK, Quon MJ, Han SH, Chung WJ, Ahn JY, Seo YH, Choi IS, Shin EK.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 May 17;45(10):1649-53.

OBJECTIVES: We compared vascular and metabolic responses (and adverse responses) to statin and fibrate therapies alone or in combination in patients with combined hyperlipidemia... 

 

Additive beneficial effects of fenofibrate combined with atorvastatin in the treatment of combined hyperlipidemia. 

Koh KK, Quon MJ, Han SH, Chung WJ, Ahn JY, Seo YH, Choi IS, Shin EK.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 May 17;45(10):1649-53.

OBJECTIVES: We compared vascular and metabolic responses (and adverse responses) to statin and fibrate therapies alone or in combination in patients with combined hyperlipidemia. 

 

[The metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance] 

Kotani K, Kaku K.
Nippon Rinsho. 2005 Aug;63(8):1485-91.

The frequency of cardiovascular disease associated with metabolic disorder is increasing rapidly worldwide. The metabolic syndrome, a concurrence of glucose intolerance, obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension that are risk factors for atherosclerosis, accounts for a large proportion of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. [Article in Japanese] 

 

Plasma level of endogenous secretory RAGE is associated with components of the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. 

Koyama H, Shoji T, Yokoyama H, Motoyama K, Mori K, Fukumoto S, Emoto M, Shoji T, Tamei H, Matsuki H, Sakurai S, Yamamoto Y, Yonekura H, Watanabe T, Yamamoto H, Nishizawa Y.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Dec;25(12):2587-93. Epub 2005 Oct 13.

OBJECTIVE: Advanced glycation endproducts, AGEs, and its specific receptor, RAGE, are involved in diabetic vascular complications... 

 

HDL-raising strategies in the treatment of coronary artery disease: perspectives from the Armed Forces Regression Study. 

Krasuski RA.
Curr Opin Lipidol. 2005 Dec;16(6):652-7.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Even with the aggressive reduction of LDL-cholesterol, the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease remains substantial... 

 

HDL-raising strategies in the treatment of coronary artery disease: perspectives from the Armed Forces Regression Study. 

Krasuski RA.
Curr Opin Lipidol. 2005 Dec;16(6):652-7.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Even with the aggressive reduction of LDL-cholesterol, the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease remains substantial... 

 

Efficacy and safety of micronised fenofibrate in a randomised double-blind study comparing four doses from 200 mg to 400 mg daily with placebo in patients with hypercholesterolemia. 

Krempf M, Rohmer V, Farnier M, Issa-Sayegh M, Corda C, Sirugue I, Gerlinger C, Masseyeff-Elbaz MF.
Diabetes Metab. 2000 May;26(3):184-91.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy on LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) of micronised fenofibrate given for three months at doses ranging from 200 to 400 mg once daily, compared with placebo. 

 

Large and micro coronary vascular involvement in diabetes. 

L'abbate A.
Pharmacol Rep. 2005;57 Suppl:3-9.

Diabetes, with hyperglycemia as its hallmark, is a major risk factor for ischemic heart disease. The role of coronary disease in the adverse prognosis of diabetes is controversial although the higher prevalence and extension of coronary atherosclerosis is well recognized... 

 

Adipokines: molecular links between obesity and atheroslcerosis. 

Lau DC, Dhillon B, Yan H, Szmitko PE, Verma S.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005 May;288(5):H2031-41. Epub 2005 Jan 14.

Atherosclerotic disease remains the leading cause of death in industrialized nations despite major advances in its diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. The increasing epidemic of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes will likely add to this burden. Increasingly, it is becoming apparent that adipose tissue is an active endocrine and paracrine organ that releases several bioactive mediators that influence not only body weight homeostasis but also inflammation, coagulation, fibrinolysis, insulin resistance, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. 

 

Physical activity and weight gain prevention. 

Lee IM, Djoussé L, Sesso HD, Wang L, Buring JE.
JAMA 2010;303:1173-9

 

 

Alpha-lipoic acid prevents endothelial dysfunction in obese rats via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. 

Lee WJ, Lee IK, Kim HS, Kim YM, Koh EH, Won JC, Han SM, Kim MS, Jo I, Oh GT, Park IS, Youn JH, Park SW, Lee KU, Park JY.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Dec;25(12):2488-94. Epub 2005 Oct 13.

OBJECTIVE: Lipid accumulation in vascular endothelial cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in obese subjects... 

 

Contribution of apo CIII reduction to the greater effect of 12-week micronized fenofibrate than atorvastatin therapy on triglyceride levels and LDL size in dyslipidemic patients. 

Lemieux I, Salomon H, Despres JP.
Ann Med. 2003;35(6):442-8.

BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein (apo) CIII plays an important role in the catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as it is a potent inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase (LPL). 

 

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors: How Their Effects on Macrophages Can Lead to the Development of a New Drug Therapy Against Atherosclerosis. 

Li AC, Palinski W.
Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005 Aug 3; [Epub ahead of print]

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) alpha (alpha), beta/ delta (beta/delta), and gamma (gamma) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, which also includes the estrogen, androgen, and glucocorticord receptors... 

 

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: how their effects on macrophages can lead to the development of a new drug therapy against atherosclerosis. 

Li AC, Palinski W.
Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2006;46:1-39.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) alpha (alpha), beta/delta (beta/delta), and gamma (gamma) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, which also includes the estrogen, androgen, and glucocorticoid receptors... 

 

Changes of plasma inflammatory markers after withdrawal of statin therapy in patients with hyperlipidemia. 

Li JJ, Li YS, Chu JM, Zhang CY, Wang Y, Huang Y, Chen J, Yuan JQ, Huang YL.
Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Apr;366(1-2):269-73. Epub 2005 Dec 15.

BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis has been considered to be an inflammatory process. In addition to its lipid-lowering properties, statin has been shown to decrease the concentrations of inflammatory markers resulting in reduction of cardiovascular events... 

 

Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load, carbohydrate and fiber intake, and measures of insulin sensitivity, secretion, and adiposity in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. 

Liese AD, Schulz M, Fang F, Wolever TM, D'Agostino RB Jr, Sparks KC, Mayer-Davis EJ.
Diabetes Care. 2005 Dec;28(12):2832-8.

OBJECTIVE: We studied the association of digestible carbohydrates, fiber intake, glycemic index, and glycemic load with insulin sensitivity (S(I)), fasting insulin, acute insulin response (AIR), disposition index, BMI, and waist circumference... 

 

Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein -493T variant reduces IDL plus LDL apoB production and the plasma concentration of large LDL particles. 

Lundahl B, Skoglund-Andersson C, Caslake M, Bedford D, Stewart P, Hamsten A, Packard CJ, Karpe F.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Apr;290(4):E739-45. Epub 2005 Nov 15.

The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is essential for the synthesis and secretion of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins... 

 

Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein -493T variant reduces IDL plus LDL apoB production and the plasma concentration of large LDL particles. 

Lundahl B, Skoglund-Andersson C, Caslake M, Bedford D, Stewart P, Hamsten A, Packard CJ, Karpe F.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Apr;290(4):E739-45. Epub 2005 Nov 15.

The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is essential for the synthesis and secretion of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins... 

 

Macrophage adiponectin expression improves insulin sensitivity and protects against inflammation and atherosclerosis. 

Luo N, Liu J, Chung BH, Yang Q, Klein RL, Garvey WT, Fu Y.
Diabetes 2010;59:791-9

 

 

High C-reactive protein and low paraoxonase1 in diabetes as risk factors for coronary heart disease. 

Mackness B, Hine D, McElduff P, Mackness M.
Atherosclerosis. 2005 Sep 1; [Epub ahead of print]

Paraoxonase1 (PON1) is an anti-inflammatory enzyme located on HDL, which protects against the development of atherosclerosis. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a marker of the inflammatory response in CHD. We hypothesised that low PON1 and high CRP found in CHD may be important markers of CHD and the CRP:PON1 ratio may be an index of the risk of developing atherosclerosis. We have, therefore, compared the levels of PON1 and CRP between control subjects, those with no diabetes and CHD, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. 

 

Atherosclerosis in diabetes mellitus: role of inflammation. 

Maiti R, Agrawal NK.
Indian J Med Sci. 2007 May;61(5):292-306.

Inflammation plays a central role in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, starting from initiation, through progression and ultimately the thrombotic complications of atherosclerosis.  

 

Sugar-sweetened beverages, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease risk. 

Malik VS, Popkin BM, Bray GA, Després JP, Hu FB.
Circulation 2010;121:1356-64

 

 

Effect of combined antihypertensive and lipid lowering therapy on the level of coronary risk and tissue insulin resistance in patients with metabolic syndrome 

Mamedov MN, Perova NV, Kosmatova OV, Khadipash LA, Kiseleva NV, Oganov RG.
Kardiologiia. 2003;43(3):13-9.

AIM: To assess effect of combined antihypertensive and lipid lowering therapy on main characteristics of metabolic syndrome and total coronary risk... 

 

Folic acid, inflammation, and atherosclerosis: False hopes or the need for better trials? 

Mangoni AA.
Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Jan 11; [Epub ahead of print]

An increasing body of evidence supports the existence of a strong link between inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and the onset and progression of atherosclerosis. However, a cause-effect relationship between these phenomena has not been demonstrated yet... 

 

Patterns of physical activity determined by heart rate monitoring among diabetic children. 

Massin MM, Lebrethon MC, Rocour D, Gerard P, Bourguignon JP.
Arch Dis Child. 2005 Dec;90(12):1223-6. Epub 2005 Jun 7.

BACKGROUND: Children with type 1 diabetes should be encouraged to participate in physical activity because exercise can benefit insulin sensitivity and improve known risk factors for atherosclerosis... 

 

Role of cholesterol and lipid organization in disease. 

Maxfield FR, Tabas I.
Nature. 2005 Dec 1;438(7068):612-21.

Membrane lipids are essential for biological functions ranging from membrane trafficking to signal transduction... 

 

Drug therapy of high-risk lipid abnormalities in children and adolescents: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Obesity in Youth Committee, Council of Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, with the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing. 

McCrindle BW, Urbina EM, Dennison BA, Jacobson MS, Steinberger J, Rocchini AP, Hayman LL, Daniels SR;
Circulation. 2007 Apr 10;115(14):1948-67. Epub 2007 Mar 21.

Despite compliance with lifestyle recommendations, some children and adolescents with high-risk hyperlipidemia will require lipid-lowering drug therapy, particularly those with familial hypercholesterolemia.  

 

Heterogeneity in the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus in obese individuals: effect of differences in insulin sensitivity. 

McLaughlin T, Abbasi F, Lamendola C, Reaven G.
Arch Intern Med. 2007 Apr 9;167(7):642-8.

BACKGROUND: The possibility that substantial heterogeneity in metabolic abnormalities exists in moderately obese individuals has not been emphasized in studies of the effect of obesity on morbidity and mortality. 

 

Type Of Preexisting Lipid Therapy Predicts LDL-C Response to Ezetimibe. 

Meyers CD, Moon YS, Ghanem H, Wong ND.
Ann Pharmacother. 2006 May;40(5):818-23. Epub 2006 Apr 25.

BACKGROUND: Ezetimibe as monotherapy or in combination with statins effectively lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). However, there are few reports of ezetimibe's effect when added to ongoing non-statin lipid-lowering drugs or combination lipidlowering therapy. 

 

Effects of weight loss and pharmacotherapy on inflammatory markers of cardiovascular disease. 

Miller WM, Nori Janosz KE, Yanez J, McCullough PA.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2005 Jul;3(4):743-59.

Obesity is currently an epidemic, and the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is increasing dramatically as a result... 

 

Eicosapentaenoic acid reduces the progression of carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes. 

Mita T, Watada H, Ogihara T, Nomiyama T, Ogawa O, Kinoshita J, Shimizu T, Hirose T, Tanaka Y, Kawamori R.
Atherosclerosis. 2006 Apr 5; [Epub ahead of print]

To investigate the effect of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on the progression of diabetic macroangiopathy, we performed an open-label randomized prospective trial... 

 

Eicosapentaenoic acid reduces the progression of carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes. 

Mita T, Watada H, Ogihara T, Nomiyama T, Ogawa O, Kinoshita J, Shimizu T, Hirose T, Tanaka Y, Kawamori R.
Atherosclerosis. 2006 Apr 5; [Epub ahead of print]

To investigate the effect of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on the progression of diabetic macroangiopathy, we performed an open-label randomized prospective trial... 

 

Ezetimibe and fenofibrate combination therapy for mixed hyperlipidemia. 

Moon YS, Chun P, Chung S.
Drugs Today (Barc). 2007 Jan;43(1):35-45.

The ezetimibe and fenofibrate combination regimen was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treatment of mixed hyperlipidemia. This powerful lipid-modifying therapy takes advantage of the different mechanisms of action of the two individual components.  

 

Effect of low-density lipoprotein apheresis on lipoprotein-associated phospholipase a(2). 

Moriarty PM, Gibson CA.
Am J Cardiol. 2005 May 15;95(10):1246-7.

Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) is a proinflammatory participant in atherosclerosis and a potential biomarker for coronary heart disease. The effects of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis on Lp-PLA(2) levels were evaluated in 8 patients with cardiovascular disease. Each patient received 5 LDL apheresis treatments over a 3-month period. 

 

Supermarkets, other food stores, and obesity: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. 

Morland K, Diez Roux AV, Wing S.
Am J Prev Med. 2006 Apr;30(4):333-9.

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a leading public health concern, and although environmental factors have been hypothesized to play a role in the prevention of obesity, little empirical data exist to document their effects... 

 

Supermarkets, other food stores, and obesity: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. 

Morland K, Diez Roux AV, Wing S.
Am J Prev Med. 2006 Apr;30(4):333-9.

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a leading public health concern, and although environmental factors have been hypothesized to play a role in the prevention of obesity, little empirical data exist to document their effects... 

 

Diabetes mellitus is a strong, independent risk for atrial fibrillation and flutter in addition to other cardiovascular disease. 

Movahed MR, Hashemzadeh M, Jamal MM.
Int J Cardiol. 2005 Dec 7;105(3):315-8; discussion 319-21.

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. There is a controversy in literature about correlation between DM and atrial fibrillation... 

 

Treatment with high-dose simvastatin reduces secretion of apolipoprotein B-lipoproteins in patients with diabetic dyslipidemia. 

Myerson M, Ngai C, Jones J, Holleran S, Ramakrishnan R, Berglund L, Ginsberg HN.
J Lipid Res. 2005 Dec;46(12):2735-44. Epub 2005 Sep 14.

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are effective lipid-altering drugs for the treatment of dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus... 

 

Serum interleukin-18 levels are associated with nephropathy and atherosclerosis in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. 

Nakamura A, Shikata K, Hiramatsu M, Nakatou T, Kitamura T, Wada J, Itoshima T, Makino H.
Diabetes Care. 2005 Dec;28(12):2890-5.

OBJECTIVE: Interleukin (IL)-18 is a proinflammatory cytokine secreted from mononuclear cells. Serum concentration of IL-18 is a strong predictor of death in patients with cardiovascular diseases... 

 

Carotid intima-media thickness and presence or absence of plaque improves prediction of coronary heart disease risk: the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) study. 

Nambi V, Chambless L, Folsom AR, He M, Hu Y, Mosley T, Volcik K, Boerwinkle E, Ballantyne CM.
J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;55:1600-7

 

 

American Heart Association Updates Dietary Guidelines for Children (CME) 

News Author: Laurie Barclay, MD
CME Author: Désirée Lie, MD, MSEd

 

 

Insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. 

Nigro J, Osman N, Dart AM, Little PJ.
Endocr Rev. 2006 May;27(3):242-59. Epub 2006 Feb 21.

The epidemic of obesity in the developed world over the last two decades is driving a large increase in type 2 diabetes and consequentially setting the scene for an impending wave of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality... 

 

Insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. 

Nigro J, Osman N, Dart AM, Little PJ.
Endocr Rev. 2006 May;27(3):242-59. Epub 2006 Feb 21.

The epidemic of obesity in the developed world over the last two decades is driving a large increase in type 2 diabetes and consequentially setting the scene for an impending wave of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. 

 

Effect of very high-intensity statin therapy on regression of coronary atherosclerosis: the ASTEROID trial. 

Nissen SE, Nicholls SJ, Sipahi I, Libby P, Raichlen JS, Ballantyne CM, Davignon J, Erbel R, Fruchart JC, Tardif JC, Schoenhagen P, Crowe T, Cain V, Wolski K, Goormastic M, Tuzcu EM; ASTEROID Investigators.
JAMA. 2006 Apr 5;295(13):1556-65. Epub 2006 Mar 13.

CONTEXT: Prior intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) trials have demonstrated slowing or halting of atherosclerosis progression with statin therapy but have not shown convincing evidence of regression using percent atheroma volume (PAV), the most rigorous IVUS measure of disease progression and regression. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether very intensive statin therapy could regress coronary atherosclerosis as determined by IVUS imaging... 

 

Effect of very high-intensity statin therapy on regression of coronary atherosclerosis: the ASTEROID trial. 

Nissen SE, Nicholls SJ, Sipahi I, Libby P, Raichlen JS, Ballantyne CM, Davignon J, Erbel R, Fruchart JC, Tardif JC, Schoenhagen P, Crowe T, Cain V, Wolski K, Goormastic M, Tuzcu EM; ASTEROID Investigators.
JAMA. 2006 Apr 5;295(13):1556-65. Epub 2006 Mar 13.

CONTEXT: Prior intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) trials have demonstrated slowing or halting of atherosclerosis progression with statin therapy but have not shown convincing evidence of regression using percent atheroma volume (PAV), the most rigorous IVUS measure of disease progression and regression... 

 

Nonfasting triglycerides and risk of myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, and death in men and women. 

Nordestgaard BG, Benn M, Schnohr P, Tybjaerg-Hansen A.
JAMA. 2007 Jul 18;298(3):299-308.

CONTEXT: Elevated nonfasting triglycerides indicate the presence of remnant lipoproteins, which may promote atherosclerosis. 

 

Cost-effectiveness of gemfibrozil for coronary heart disease patients with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: the Department of Veterans Affairs High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Intervention Trial. 

Nyman JA, Martinson MS, Nelson D, Nugent S, Collins D, Wittes J, Fye CL, Wilt TJ, Robins SJ, Bloomfield Rubins H; VA-HIT Study Group.
Arch Intern Med. 2002 Jan 28;162(2):177-82.

BACKGROUND: Although numerous clinical trials and economic analyses have established the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of lowering cholesterol for the prevention of coronary heart disease, there are few data on the role of raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and lowering triglyceride levels... 

 

Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma suppresses telomerase activity in vascular smooth muscle cells. 

Ogawa D, Nomiyama T, Nakamachi T, Heywood EB, Stone JF, Berger JP, Law RE, Bruemmer D.
Circ Res. 2006 Apr 14;98(7):e50-9. Epub 2006 Mar 23.

Activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma, the molecular target for insulin sensitizing thiazolidinediones used in patients with type 2 diabetes, inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and prevents atherosclerosis and neointima formation... 

 

Reverse cholesterol transport and cholesterol efflux in atherosclerosis. 

Ohashi R, Mu H, Wang X, Yao Q, Chen C.
QJM. 2005 Dec;98(12):845-56. Epub 2005 Oct 28.

Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is a pathway by which accumulated cholesterol is transported from the vessel wall to the liver for excretion, thus preventing atherosclerosis... 

 

Effect of metformin on serum lipoprotein lipase mass levels and LDL particle size in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. 

Ohira M, Miyashita Y, Ebisuno M, Saiki A, Endo K, Koide N, Oyama T, Murano T, Watanabe H, Shirai K.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007 Mar 17; [Epub ahead of print]

We previously reported that lipoprotein lipase mass levels in preheparin serum (preheparin LPL mass) was significantly lower in type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to healthy subjects and that low preheparin LPL mass may be a high-risk factor of coronary atherosclerosis. 

 

The effect of metformin and intensive lifestyle intervention on the metabolic syndrome: the Diabetes Prevention Program randomized trial. 

Orchard TJ, Temprosa M, Goldberg R, Haffner S, Ratner R, Marcovina S, Fowler S; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group.
Ann Intern Med. 2005 Apr 19;142(8):611-9.

BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome is a high-risk state for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Little is known about its prevalence and prevention in those with impaired glucose tolerance.  

 

The effects of S-allylmercaptocaptopril, the synthetic product of allicin and captopril, on cardiovascular risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome. 

Oron-Herman M, Rosenthal T, Mirelman D, Miron T, Rabinkov A, Wilchek M, Sela BA.
Atherosclerosis. 2005 Dec;183(2):238-43. Epub 2005 Apr 14.

Pure allicin, prepared biosynthetically by reacting synthetic alliin with an immobilized alliinase enzyme, is known to possess cardioprotective effects... 

 

Metabolic syndrome is associated with more pronounced impairment of left ventricle geometry and function in patients with calcific aortic stenosis: a substudy of the ASTRONOMER (Aortic Stenosis Progression Observation Measuring Effects of Rosuvastatin). 

Pagé A, Dumesnil JG, Clavel MA, Chan KL, Teo KK, Tam JW, Mathieu P, Després JP, Pibarot P.
J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;55:1867-74

 

 

Social support level in relation to metabolic syndrome--results of the SOPKARD study 

Pakalska-Korcala-Anna, Zdrojewski-Tomasz, Piwonski-Jerzy, Gil- Katarzyna, Chwojnicki-Kamil, Ignaszewska-Wyrzykowska-Agata, Mielczarek-Milena, Radziwillowicz-Piotr, Landowski-Jerzy, Wyrzykowski-Bogdan
Kardiologia polska, {Kardiol-Pol}, May 2008, vol. 66, no. 5, p. 500-5, discussion 506, ISSN: 0022-9032

BACKGROUND: Low level of social support is one of the psychosocial cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, social support level (SSL) has been reported to be associated with components of metabolic syndrome (MS). AIM: To evaluate the association of SSL with MS in 50- and 60- year-old citizens of Sopot. 

 

Beyond LDL-Cholesterol: HDL-Cholesterol as a Target for Atherosclerosis Prevention. 

Parhofer KG.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2005 Sep;113(8):414-417.

Dyslipoproteinemias such as elevated LDL-cholesterol, reduced HDL-cholesterol, elevated triglycerides and elevated lipoprotein(a) play a central role in atherosclerosis. An elevated LDL concentration is pro-atherogenic because LDL are intimately linked to oxidative and inflammatory processes in the arterial wall. 

 

The effects of the overexpression of recombinant uncoupling protein 2 on proliferation, migration and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 expression in human vascular smooth muscle cells. 

Park JY, Park KG, Kim HJ, Kang HG, Ahn JD, Kim HS, Kim YM, Son SM, Kim IJ, Kim YK, Kim CD, Lee KU, Lee IK.
Diabetologia. 2005 May;48(5):1022-8. Epub 2005 Apr 13.

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Increased oxidative stress in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of accelerated atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes mellitus. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2) is an important regulator of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. 

 

Apolipoprotein A-I and the molecular variant apoA-I(Milano): evaluation of the antiatherogenic effects in knock-in mouse model. 

Parolini C, Chiesa G, Gong E, Caligari S, Cortese MM, Koga T, Forte TM, Rubin EM.
Atherosclerosis. 2005 Dec;183(2):222-9. Epub 2005 Apr 21.

No evidence of premature vascular disease is found in apolipoprotein A-I(Milano) (apoA-I(M)) human carriers, despite very low high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels... 

 

Early atherosclerosis in obese juveniles is associated with low serum levels of adiponectin. 

Pilz S, Horejsi R, Moller R, Almer G, Scharnagl H, Stojakovic T, Dimitrova R, Weihrauch G, Borkenstein M, Maerz W, Schauenstein K, Mangge H.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Aug;90(8):4792-6. Epub 2005 May 31.

There is growing evidence that adiponectin, the most abundant adipocytokine of adipose tissue cells, plays a crucial role in advanced atherosclerosis. 

 

Insulin resistance and the endothelium. 

Quinones MJ, Nicholas SB, Lyon CJ.
Curr Diab Rep. 2005 Aug;5(4):246-53.

Type 2 diabetes is a cardiovascular disease equivalent that is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and significant mortality. However, the metabolic syndrome and prediabetes are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, indicating that atherogenic vascular changes begin prior to the onset of overt diabetes. 

 

Lack of synergistic effects of metabolic syndrome and plasma fibrinogen on coronary events and mortality in moderate CKD. 

Ramkumar N, Murtaugh MA, Cheung AK, Beddhu S.
Am J Kidney Dis. 2007 Mar;49(3):356-64.

 

 

C-reactive protein in 2005. Interview by Peter C. Block. 

Ridker PM.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Jul 5;46(1):CS2-5.

Acute coronary events strike nearly 1.4 million Americans annually. This includes an estimated 700,000 new coronary events, 500,000 recurrent events, and 175,000 silent first events each year... 

 

Relation of gemfibrozil treatment and lipid levels with major coronary events: VA-HIT: a randomized controlled trial. 

Robins SJ, Collins D, Wittes JT, Papademetriou V, Deedwania PC, Schaefer EJ, McNamara JR, Kashyap ML, Hershman JM, Wexler LF, Rubins HB; VA-HIT Study Group. Veterans Affairs High-Density Lipoprotein Intervention Trial.
JAMA. 2001 Mar 28;285(12):1585-91.

CONTEXT: A low plasma level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). A secondary prevention study, the Veterans Affairs High-Density Lipoprotein Intervention Trial (VA-HIT), demonstrated that CHD events were significantly reduced during a median follow-up of 5.1 years by treating patients with the fibric acid derivative gemfibrozil when the predominant lipid abnormality was low HDL-C... 

 

Insulin resistance and cardiovascular events with low HDL cholesterol: the Veterans Affairs HDL Intervention Trial (VA-HIT). 

Robins SJ, Rubins HB, Faas FH, Schaefer EJ, Elam MB, Anderson JW, Collins D; Veterans Affairs HDL Intervention Trial (VA-HIT).
Diabetes Care. 2003 May;26(5):1513-7.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of insulin resistance and the benefit of the fibrate, gemfibrozil, on the incidence of major cardiovascular events in subjects with low HDL cholesterol and a broad range of triglyceride values who participated in the Veterans Affairs High Density Lipoprotein Intervention Trial (VA-HIT)... 

 

Cardiovascular disease with diabetes or the metabolic syndrome: should statins or fibrates be first line lipid therapy? 

Robins SJ.
Curr Opin Lipidol. 2003 Dec;14(6):575-83.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Subgroups with diabetes or with features of the metabolic syndrome have been increasingly highlighted in large clinical endpoint trials with lipid therapy... 

 

The endocrine function of adipose tissue: an update. 

Ronti T, Lupattelli G, Mannarino E.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006 Apr;64(4):355-65.

Adipose tissue secretes bioactive peptides, termed 'adipokines', which act locally and distally through autocrine, paracrine and endocrine effects... 

 

Coronary heart disease in menopausal women: Implications of primary and secondary prevention trials of hormones. 

Rossouw JE.
Maturitas. 2005 May 16;51(1):51-63.

In direct contrast to the observational studies, both primary and secondary prevention trials of female reproductive hormones have found no benefit for coronary heart disease (CHD). Basic science studies have elucidated several mechanisms by which estrogen may improve coronary arterial physiology and prevent pathology, but have also found mechanisms by which estrogen might increase coagulation or inflammation, or might trigger coronary events in advanced lesions. Animal studies suggest that hormones may retard early atherosclerosis, while both animal studies and human angiographic trials are conclusive that hormones do not retard progression of raised lesions. 

 

Oxidized low-density lipoprotein-dependent endothelial arginase II activation contributes to impaired nitric oxide signaling. 

Ryoo S, Lemmon CA, Soucy KG, Gupta G, White AR, Nyhan D, Shoukas A, Romer LH, Berkowitz DE.
Circ Res. 2006 Oct 27;99(9):951-60. Epub 2006 Sep 28.

Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) impairs NO signaling and endothelial function, and contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Arginase reciprocally regulates NO levels in endothelial cells by competing with NO synthase for the substrate l-arginine. In human aortic endothelial cells, OxLDL stimulation increased arginase enzyme activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner. 

 

L-19 and IL-20: two novel cytokines with importance in inflammatory diseases. 

Sabat R, Wallace E, Endesfelder S, Wolk K.
Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2007 May;11(5):601-12.

IL-19 and IL-20 are two cytokines that were discovered in 2000 and 2001, respectively.  

 

Metabolic syndrome: stronger association with coronary artery disease in young men in comparison with higher prevalence in young women. 

Sadeghian S, Darvish S, Salimi S, Esfehani FA, Fallah N, Mahmoodian M, Salarifar M, Karimi A.
Coron Artery Dis. 2007 May;18(3):163-8.

BACKGROUND: Being overweight, a constituent of the metabolic syndrome, is also an important contributing factor to the development of coronary artery disease in younger patients, compared with the older patient population. Owing to the above-mentioned fact, we sought to assess the association of the metabolic syndrome with premature coronary artery disease. 

 

Homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate levels in premature coronary artery disease. 

Sadeghian S, Fallahi F, Salarifar M, Davoodi G, Mahmoodian M, Fallah N, Darvish S, Karimi A; Tehran Heart Center.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2006 Sep 26;6:38.

BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia is known as an independent risk factor of atherosclerosis, but the probable role of hyperhomocysteinemia in premature Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is not well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the role of hyperhomocysteinemia, folate and Vitamin B12 deficiency in the development of premature CAD.  

 

The beneficial effects of lipid-lowering drugs beyond lipid-lowering effects: A comparative study with pravastatin, atorvastatin, and fenofibrate in patients with type IIa and type IIb hyperlipidemia. 

Saklamaz A, Comlekci A, Temiz A, Caliskan S, Ceylan C, Alacacioglu A, Yesil S.
Metabolism. 2005 May;54(5):677-81.

Abstract Hyperlipidemia is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis. Hemorheological factors contribute to morbidity and mortality in patients with dyslipidemia. We evaluated the effects of 3 antihyperlipidemic drugs (pravastatin, atorvastatin, and fenofibrate), which have different mechanisms of action and different patterns of action on lipid profiles, on erythrocyte deformability and fibrinogen levels in patients with type IIa and type IIb hyperlipidemia. 

 

Predominance of a proinflammatory phenotype in monocyte-derived macrophages from subjects with low plasma HDL-cholesterol. 

Sarov-Blat L, Kiss RS, Haidar B, Kavaslar N, Jaye M, Bertiaux M, Steplewski K, Hurle MR, Sprecher D, McPherson R, Marcel YL.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007 May;27(5):1115-22. Epub 2007 Feb 22.

OBJECTIVE: Reduced plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) are a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Mechanisms that regulate HDL-C concentrations represent an important area of investigation.  

 

Predominance of a proinflammatory phenotype in monocyte-derived macrophages from subjects with low plasma HDL-cholesterol. 

Sarov-Blat L, Kiss RS, Haidar B, Kavaslar N, Jaye M, Bertiaux M, Steplewski K, Hurle MR, Sprecher D, McPherson R, Marcel YL.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007 May;27(5):1115-22. Epub 2007 Feb 22.

OBJECTIVE: Reduced plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) are a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Mechanisms that regulate HDL-C concentrations represent an important area of investigation.  

 

Detection of coronary artery disease in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 

Scognamiglio R, Negut C, Ramondo A, Tiengo A, Avogaro A.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006 Jan 3;47(1):65-71. Epub 2005 Dec 9.

In type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) patients, coronary artery disease (CAD) generally is detected in an advanced stage, whereas an asymptomatic stage is commonly missed. Abnormal myocardial perfusion during stress myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) and significant CAD were similar, irrespective of risk factor (RF) profile in our patients, but coronary anatomy differed... 

 

The effect of dual PPAR alpha/gamma stimulation with combination of rosiglitazone and fenofibrate on metabolic parameters in type 2 diabetic patients. 

Seber S, Ucak S, Basat O, Altuntas Y.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2006 Jan;71(1):52-8. Epub 2005 Jul 11.

We assessed the additive effect of dual peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPAR) alpha/gamma induction, achieved by the addition of fenofibrate to rosiglitazone, on metabolic control and diabetic dyslipidemia.  

 

Food insecurity is associated with diabetes mellitus: results from the National Health Examination and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002. 

Seligman HK, Bindman AB, Vittinghoff E, Kanaya AM, Kushel MB.
J Gen Intern Med. 2007 Jul;22(7):1018-23. Epub 2007 Apr 11.

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity refers to limited or uncertain access to food resulting from inadequate financial resources. There is a clear association between food insecurity and obesity among women, but little is known about the relationship between food insecurity and type 2 diabetes. 

 

Glycaemia (haemoglobin A1c) and incident ischaemic stroke: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. 

Selvin E, Coresh J, Shahar E, Zhang L, Steffes M, Sharrett AR.
Lancet Neurol. 2005 Dec;4(12):821-6.

BACKGROUND: Individuals with diabetes have a raised risk of stroke, but it is unclear whether sustained hyperglycaemia contributes to the development of cerebrovascular disease. Haemoglobin A1c (HbA(1c)), a measure of long-term glycaemia, is strongly related to retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy in diabetes... 

 

Metabolic syndrome: what is it and what are the implications? 

Shaw DI, Hall WL, Williams CM.
Proc Nutr Soc. 2005 Aug;64(3):349-57.

Obesity and overweight are linked with a cluster of metabolic and vascular disorders that have been termed the metabolic syndrome... 

 

Metabolic syndrome: what is it and what are the implications? 

Shaw DI, Hall WL, Williams CM.
Proc Nutr Soc. 2005 Aug;64(3):349-57.

Obesity and overweight are linked with a cluster of metabolic and vascular disorders that have been termed the metabolic syndrome. Although there is not yet a universally-accepted set of diagnostic criteria, most expert groups agree that the syndrome is characterised by impaired insulin sensitivity and hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia (elevated blood triacyglycerols with depressed HDL-cholesterol), abdominal obesity and hypertension. 

 

Effect of intensive versus standard lipid-lowering treatment with atorvastatin on the progression of calcified coronary atherosclerosis over 12 months: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial. 

Schmermund A, Achenbach S, Budde T, Buziashvili Y, Forster A, Friedrich G, Henein M, Kerkhoff G, Knollmann F, Kukharchuk V, Lahiri A, Leischik R, Moshage W, Schartl M, Siffert W, Steinhagen-Thiessen E, Sinitsyn V, Vogt A, Wiedeking B, Erbel R.
Circulation. 2006 Jan 24;113(3):427-37. Epub 2006 Jan 16.

BACKGROUND: Recent clinical trials have suggested that intensive versus standard lipid-lowering therapy provides for additional benefit. Electron-beam computed tomography provides the opportunity to quantify the progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in serial measurements... 

 

Oxidative stress and atherosclerosis. 

Schulze PC, Lee RT.
Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2005 May;7(3):242-8.

Understanding of the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis can provide new strategies for the prevention and treatment of patients with this common disease. Clinical, epidemiologic, and basic molecular science studies have identified oxidative stress as a factor contributing to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. 

 

Early atherosclerosis in childhood type 1 diabetes: role of raised systolic blood pressure in the absence of dyslipidaemia. 

Schwab KO, Doerfer J, Krebs A, Krebs K, Schorb E, Hallermann K, Superti-Furga A, Zieger B, Marz W, Schmidt-Trucksass A, Winkler K.
Eur J Pediatr. 2007 Jun;166(6):541-8. Epub 2007 Mar 27.

The intentions of our investigation were (1) to search for atherogenic risk factors and signs of incipient atherosclerosis in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) in comparison to well-matched control subjects, (2) to evaluate risk factor associations with carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) in diabetic patients and control subjects, and (3) to acquire a better knowledge of early atherogenesis in children and adolescents with and without T1DM. 

 

Nutritional, dietary and postprandial oxidative stress. 

Sies H, Stahl W, Sevanian A.
J Nutr. 2005 May;135(5):969-72.

Nutritional, or dietary oxidative stress denotes a disturbance of the redox state resulting from excess oxidative load or from inadequate nutrient supply favoring prooxidant reactions. Low intake or impaired availability of dietary antioxidants including vitamins E and C, carotenoids, polyphenols, and other micronutrients (e.g., selenium) weakens the antioxidant network. Postprandial oxidative stress, as a subform of nutritional oxidative stress, ensues from sustained postprandial hyperlipidemia and/or hyperglycemia and is associated with a higher risk for atherosclerosis, diabetes, and obesity. 

 

Does a diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome provide additional prediction of cardiovascular disease and total mortality in the elderly? The Dubbo Study. 

Simons LA, Simons J, Friedlander Y, McCallum J.
Med J Aust. 2007 Apr 16;186(8):400-3.

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether a diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) improves the prediction of cardiovascular disease or total mortality beyond that already provided by conventional risk factors.  

 

Influence of Insulin Resistance and Body Mass Index at Age 13 on Systolic Blood Pressure, Triglycerides, and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol at Age 19. 

Sinaiko AR, Steinberger J, Moran A, Hong CP, Prineas RJ, Jacobs DR Jr.
Hypertension. 2006 Aug 21; [Epub ahead of print]

The association of insulin resistance and body mass index (BMI) at age 13 years and change in insulin resistance and BMI from ages 13 to 19 years with systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol at age 19 years was studied in black and non-Hispanic white children. 

 

Life course body size and lipid levels at 53 years in a British birth cohort. 

Skidmore PM, Hardy RJ, Kuh DJ, Langenberg C, Wadsworth ME.
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2007 Mar;61(3):215-20.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between growth in height and change in body mass index (BMI) during the life course on lipid levels at 53 years.  

 

A comparison of the NCEP-ATPIII, IDF and AHA/NHLBI metabolic syndrome definitions with relation to early carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with hypercholesterolemia or at risk of CVD: Evidence for sex-specific differences. 

Skilton MR, Moulin P, Serusclat A, Nony P, Bonnet F.
Atherosclerosis. 2006 Apr 6; [Epub ahead of print]

The metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease... 

 

A comparison of the NCEP-ATPIII, IDF and AHA/NHLBI metabolic syndrome definitions with relation to early carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with hypercholesterolemia or at risk of CVD: Evidence for sex-specific differences. 

Skilton MR, Moulin P, Serusclat A, Nony P, Bonnet F.
Atherosclerosis. 2006 Apr 6; [Epub ahead of print]

The metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the association between metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic patients remains unknown... 

 

Population strategies to decrease sodium intake and the burden of cardiovascular disease: a cost-effectiveness analysis. 

Smith-Spangler CM, Juusola JL, Enns EA, Owens DK, Garber AM.
Ann Intern Med 2010;152:481-7

 

 

Lipoprotein (a) and stroke: a meta-analysis of observational studies. 

Smolders B, Lemmens R, Thijs V.
Stroke. 2007 Jun;38(6):1959-66. Epub 2007 May 3.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The relationship between elevated lipoprotein (a) levels[Lp(a)] and stroke is controversial. We systematically reviewed the literature to determine whether Lp(a) is a risk factor for stroke. 

 

One-year cardiovascular event rates in outpatients with atherothrombosis. 

Steg PG, Bhatt DL, Wilson PW, D'Agostino R Sr, Ohman EM, Rother J, Liau CS, Hirsch AT, Mas JL, Ikeda Y, Pencina MJ, Goto S; REACH Registry Investigators.
JAMA. 2007 Mar 21;297(11):1197-206.

OBJECTIVE: To establish contemporary, international, 1-year CV event rates in outpatients with established arterial disease or with multiple risk factors for atherothrombosis.  

 

A randomized trial of the effects of rosiglitazone and metformin on inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. 

Stocker DJ, Taylor AJ, Langley RW, Jezior MR, Vigersky RA.
Am Heart J. 2007 Mar;153(3):445.e1-6.

 

 

Association between insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes and the effects of pioglitazone. 

Suzuki M, Takamisawa I, Yoshimasa Y, Harano Y.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2006 Sep 26; [Epub ahead of print]

Endothelial dysfunction is regarded as an early stage of atherosclerosis, and plays a role in the development of atherosclerotic diseases. Insulin resistance is related to the atherosclerotic process. In this study, we examined the association between endothelial function and insulin resistance in 48 subjects with type 2 diabetes.  

 

Metabolic syndrome in young adults type 1 diabetic patients 

Szadkowska-Agnieszka, Pietrzak-Iwona, Bodalska-Lipinska-Joanna, Czerniawska-Elzbieta, Wlodarczyk-Marianna, Swatko-Mikolajczyk-Anna, Bodalski-Jerzy
PrzeglaI§d lekarski, {Prz-Lek}, 2008, vol. 65, no. 3, p. 126-30, ISSN: 0033-2240

AIM: The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in type 1 diabetic patients and to assess the relationship between the scores of MS components and body mass and metabolic control.  

 

Weight loss reduces adipose tissue cathepsin S and its circulating levels in morbidly obese women. 

Taleb S, Cancello R, Poitou C, Rouault C, Sellam P, Levy P, Bouillot JL, Coussieu C, Basdevant A, Guerre-Millo M, Lacasa D, Clement K.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Mar;91(3):1042-7. Epub 2006 Jan 4.

CONTEXT: Human adipose tissue produces several adipokines, including the newly identified protein cathepsin S (CTSS), a cysteine protease involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Obesity is characterized by high levels of CTSS in the circulation and in sc white adipose tissue (scWAT)... 

 

The metabolic syndrome: A vascular perspective. 

Tamsma JT, Jazet IM, Beishuizen ED, Fogteloo AJ, Meinders AE, Huisman MV.
Eur J Intern Med. 2005 Sep;16(5):314-20.

The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors. Current definitions of MS use hypertension, waist circumference, fasting glucose, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels as defining variables. 

 

Tracking atherosclerosis regression: a clinical tool in preventive cardiology. 

Taylor A, Shaw LJ, Fayad Z, O'Leary D, Brown BG, Nissen S, Rader D, Raggi P.
Atherosclerosis. 2005 May;180(1):1-10.

Progression of coronary artery disease was initially evaluated using quantitative coronary angiography with ensuing evidence indicating a strong relationship to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Since then, several other atherosclerosis imaging techniques have emerged as new tools in cardiovascular medicine to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive therapies through serial monitoring of changes in atherosclerosis burden. 

 

Effect of bezafibrate on incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in obese patients. 

Tenenbaum A, Motro M, Fisman EZ, Adler Y, Shemesh J, Tanne D, Leor J, Boyko V, Schwammenthal E, Behar S.
Eur Heart J. 2005 Oct;26(19):2032-8. Epub 2005 May 4.

AIMS: To assess the effect of fibric acid derivative bezafibrate on incidence of type 2 diabetes in obese patients over a median 6.3 years follow-up period... 

 

High postprandial triglyceridemia in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. 

Tentolouris N, Stylianou A, Lourida E, Perrea D, Kyriaki D, Papavasiliou EC, Tselepis AD, Katsilambros N.
J Lipid Res. 2006 Oct 3; [Epub ahead of print]

Microalbuminuria (MA) is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Postprandial lipemia is also associated with excess cardiovascular risk.  

 

Childhood overweight and cardiovascular disease risk factors: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. 

Thompson DR, Obarzanek E, Franko DL, Barton BA, Morrison J, Biro FM, Daniels SR, Striegel-Moore RH.
J Pediatr. 2007 Jan;150(1):18-25.

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and incidence of overweight in African-American and Caucasian girls, and to examine associations between adolescent overweight and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors.  

 

Effects of combined administration of low dose atorvastatin and vitamin E on inflammatory markers and endothelial function in patients with heart failure. 

Tousoulis D, Antoniades C, Vassiliadou C, Toutouza M, Pitsavos C, Tentolouris C, Trikas A, Stefanadis C.
Eur J Heart Fail. 2005 Jul 26; [Epub ahead of print]

BACKGROUND: Heart failure has been associated with impaired endothelial function, increased inflammatory process and elevated oxidative stress status. Both statins and vitamin E separately improve endothelial function in patients with hypercholesterolemia and/or advanced atherosclerosis... 

 

Comparison of the effect of enalapril and losartan in conjunction with surgical coronary revascularisation versus revascularisation alone on systemic endothelial function. 

Trevelyan J, Needham EW, Morris A, Mattu RK.
Heart. 2005 Aug;91(8):1053-7.

To investigate the effect of enalapril, losartan, and surgical coronary revascularisation on endothelial function, and the role of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism. 

 

Hepatic high-density lipoprotein receptors: roles in lipoprotein metabolism and potential for therapeutic modulation. 

Trigatti BL.
Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2005 Sep;7(5):344-50.

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) plays an important role in protection against atherosclerosis. A major part of HDL's antiatherogenic role is through mediating reverse cholesterol transport from peripheral cells, such as macrophages and other cells in the artery wall, to the liver. 

 

A genetic variant at the fatty acid-binding protein aP2 locus reduces the risk for hypertriglyceridemia, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. 

Tuncman G, Erbay E, Hom X, De Vivo I, Campos H, Rimm EB, Hotamisligil GS.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 May 2;103(18):6970-5. Epub 2006 Apr 25.

Obesity and the associated pathologies including dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease constitute a major threat to global human health... 

 

Defining the Metabolic Syndrome Construct: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Cross-sectional Analysis. 

Vaidya D, Szklo M, Liu K, Schreiner PJ, Bertoni AG, Ouyang P.
Diabetes Care. 2007 May 7;

Objective: It is controversial if the clustering of certain metabolic abnormalities should be separately designated as the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). We operationalized the "syndrome" concept and tested whether MetSyn was compatible with these operational constructs. 

 

Role of AT-1 receptor in regulation of vascular MCP-1, IL-6, PAI-1, MAP kinase, and matrix expressions in obesity. 

Vaziri ND, Xu ZG, Shahkarami A, Huang KT, Rodriguez-Iturbe B, Natarajan R.
Kidney Int. 2005 Dec;68(6):2787-93.

Role of AT-1 receptor in regulation of vascular MCP-1, IL-6, PAI-1, MAP kinase, and matrix expressions in obesity. Background. Metabolic syndrome has emerged as the major cause of atherosclerosis... 

 

Hyperglycemia, lipoprotein glycation, and vascular disease. 

Veiraiah A.
Angiology. 2005 Jul-Aug;56(4):431-8.

Hyperlipidemia and its treatment are currently recognized as important modulators of cardio-vascular mortality in the presence of disordered glucose control... 

 

Role for fibrate therapy in diabetes: evidence before FIELD. 

Verges B.
Curr Opin Lipidol. 2005 Dec;16(6):648-51.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetic dyslipidaemia, among the main factors contributing to vascular risk in type 2 diabetes, is characterized by hypertriglyceridaemia, low HDL-cholesterol and increased prevalence of small dense LDL particles... 

 

The association between atherosclerotic risk factors and renal function in the general population. 

Verhave JC, Hillege HL, Burgerhof JG, Gansevoort RT, de Zeeuw D, de Jong PE; PREVEND Study Group.
Kidney Int. 2005 May;67(5):1967-73.

BACKGROUND: Generalized atherosclerosis is increasingly recognized as an important cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We questioned to what extent atherosclerotic risk factors determine renal function in the general population. 

 

Optimal vascular protection: a case for combination antihypertensive therapy. 

Vogel RA.
Prev Cardiol. 2006 Winter;9(1):35-41.

Endothelial dysfunction is an important factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. The endothelium mediates vascular tone, structure, and function by the release and regulation of multiple vasoactive substances that promote or inhibit vasodilation, vasoconstriction, cell growth, and other mechanisms... 

 

Increased Apolipoprotein Deposits in Early Atherosclerotic Lesions Distinguish Symptomatic From Asymptomatic Patients. 

von Ballmoos MW, Dubler D, Mirlacher M, Cathomas G, Muser J, Biedermann BC.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Dec 1; [Epub ahead of print]

OBJECTIVE: Apolipoprotein E (apoE) and apolipoprotein B100 (apoB) are both involved in receptor-mediated uptake of atherogenic lipoproteins by the liver... 

 

Relationship of Adiponectin with Markers of Systemic Inflammation, Atherogenic Dyslipidemia, and Heart Failure in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease. 

von Eynatten M, Hamann A, Twardella D, Nawroth PP, Brenner H, Rothenbacher D.
Clin Chem. 2006 Mar 23; [Epub ahead of print]

BACKGROUND: Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, appears to be a modulator of lipid metabolism and systemic inflammation and is present in particularly low concentrations in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD)... 

 

Cardiovascular risk among adults with chronic kidney disease, with or without prior myocardial infarction. 

Wattanakit K, Coresh J, Muntner P, Marsh J, Folsom AR.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006 Sep 19;48(6):1183-9. Epub 2006 Aug 28.

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether chronic kidney disease (CKD) should be considered a coronary heart disease (CHD) risk equivalent for cholesterol treatment. BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether patients with CKD have a risk of CHD events or cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality equivalent to patients with a prior myocardial infarction (MI).  

 

Differential regulation of lipoprotein kinetics by atorvastatin and fenofibrate in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. 

Watts GF, Barrett PH, Ji J, Serone AP, Chan DC, Croft KD, Loehrer F, Johnson AG.
Diabetes. 2003 Mar;52(3):803-11.

The metabolic syndrome is characterized by insulin resistance and abnormal apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) and apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB) metabolism that may collectively accelerate atherosclerosis... 

 

A homocysteine metabolism-related dietary pattern and the risk of coronary heart disease in two independent German study populations. 

Weikert C, Hoffmann K, Dierkes J, Zyriax BC, Klipstein-Grobusch K, Schulze MB, Jung R, Windler E, Boeing H.
J Nutr. 2005 Aug;135(8):1981-8.

A biomarker profile of high folate and vitamin B-12 and low plasma homocysteine concentrations reduces the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and may be linked to diet. The objectives of the present study were to identify a food pattern related to these biomarkers and to examine its association with CHD risk. 

 

Caloric sweetener consumption and dyslipidemia among US adults. 

Welsh JA, Sharma A, Abramson JL, Vaccarino V, Gillespie C, Vos MB.
JAMA 2010;303:1490-7

 

 

Qualitative effect of fenofibrate and quantitative effect of atorvastatin on LDL profile in combined hyperlipidemia with dense LDL. 

Winkler K, Weltzien P, Friedrich I, Schmitz H, Nickell HH, Hauck P, Hoffmann MM, Baumstark MW, Wieland H, Marz W.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2004 May;112(5):241-7.

INTRODUCTION: The association of elevated plasma triglyceride concentrations, decreased HDL-cholesterol, and dense LDL (dLDL) is referred to as the atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype. dLDL particularly plays a role in the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes and may be one of the factors responsible for the increased risk for coronary artery disease in these patients... 

 

Maternal cholesterol in fetal development: transport of cholesterol from the maternal to the fetal circulation. 

Woollett LA.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Dec;82(6):1155-61.

Cholesterol is required for fetal development. Data obtained from recent studies in humans, rodents, and cell cultures showed that circulating maternal cholesterol can affect fetal metabolism and sterol accretion... 

 

Linking inflammation and atherogenesis: Soluble markers identified for the detection of risk factors and for early risk assessment. 

Wu JT, Wu LL.
Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Apr;366(1-2):74-80. Epub 2005 Dec 15.

Increasing evidence has shown that atherogenesis is not only caused by hypercholesterolemia. Several risk factors including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, bacterial and viral infection, hyperhomocysteinemia have been identified recently, all mediated through inflammation, which can lead to atherosclerosis... 

 

Adipocyte Fatty Acid-binding protein is a plasma biomarker closely associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. 

Xu A, Wang Y, Xu JY, Stejskal D, Tam S, Zhang J, Wat NM, Wong WK, Lam KS.
Clin Chem. 2006 Mar;52(3):405-13. Epub 2006 Jan 19.

BACKGROUND: Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) is traditionally thought to be a cytosolic fatty acid chaperone expressed in adipocytes. Mice with targeted disruption of the A-FABP gene exhibit a striking phenotype with strong protection from insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and atherosclerosis... 

 

Elevated circulating oxidized LDL levels in Japanese subjects with the metabolic syndrome. 

Yamagishi SI, Matsuoka H, Kitano S, Hibi N, Jinnouchi Y, Umei H, Iida S, Takenaka K, Matsui T, Nakamura K, Imaizumi T.
Int J Cardiol. 2006 Oct 5; [Epub ahead of print]

In the present study, we examined the relationship between circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and the metabolic syndrome in Japanese patients. 

 

Effects of vitamin C infusion and vitamin E-coated membrane on hemodialysis-induced oxidative stress. 

Yang CC, Hsu SP, Wu MS, Hsu SM, Chien CT.
Kidney Int. 2006 Feb;69(4):706-14.

Chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients manifest anemia and atherosclerosis with associated oxidative stress. We explored whether intravenous infusion of vitamin C (VC) and/or use of vitamin E (VE)-coated dialysis membrane could palliate HD-evoked oxidative stress... 

 

Prevalence of diabetes among men and women in China. 

Yang W, Lu J, Weng J, Jia W, Ji L, Xiao J, Shan Z, Liu J, Tian H, Ji Q, Zhu D, Ge J, Lin L, Chen L, Guo X, Zhao Z, Li Q, Zhou Z, Shan G, He J.
N Engl J Med 2010;362:1090-101

 

 

Pre-clinical atherosclerosis evaluated by carotid artery intima-media thickness and the risk factors in children. 

Yang XZ, Liu Y, Mi J, Tang CS, DU JB.
Chin Med J (Engl). 2007 Mar 5;120(5):359-62.

 

 

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {alpha} and {gamma} ligands differentially affect smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. 

Zahradka P, Wright B, Fuerst M, Yurkova N, Molnar K, Taylor CG.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Jan 11; [Epub ahead of print]

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) alpha and gamma are expressed in smooth muscle cells (SMC). This study was designed to compare the effects of PPARalpha and PPARgamma on SMC proliferation and migration, and to determine how they operate... 

 

Role of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in atherosclerosis: biology, epidemiology, and possible therapeutic target. 

Zalewski A, Macphee C.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 May;25(5):923-31. Epub 2005 Feb 24.

The development of atherosclerotic vascular disease is invariably linked to the formation of bioactive lipid mediators and accompanying vascular inflammation. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an enzyme that is produced by inflammatory cells, co-travels with circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and hydrolyzes oxidized phospholipids in LDL. Its biological role has been controversial with initial reports purporting atheroprotective effects of Lp-PLA2 thought to be a consequence of degrading platelet-activating factor and removing polar phospholipids in modified LDL. 

 

Modulation of Hepatic Inflammatory Risk Markers of Cardiovascular Diseases by PPAR-{ alpha } Activators. Clinical and Experimental Evidence. 

Zambon A, Gervois P, Pauletto P, Fruchart JC, Staels B.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006 Jan 19; [Epub ahead of print]

Atherosclerosis is a long-term chronic inflammatory disease associated with increased concentrations of inflammatory hepatic markers, such as CRP and fibrinogen, and of peripheral origin, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6... 

 

Role of apoA-I, ABCA1, LCAT, and SR-BI in the biogenesis of HDL. 

Zannis VI, Chroni A, Krieger M.
J Mol Med. 2006 Apr;84(4):276-94. Epub 2006 Feb 25.

The concentration, composition, shape, and size of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) are determined by numerous proteins that influence its biogenesis, remodeling, and catabolism... 

 

Role of apoA-I, ABCA1, LCAT, and SR-BI in the biogenesis of HDL. 

Zannis VI, Chroni A, Krieger M.
J Mol Med. 2006 Apr;84(4):276-94. Epub 2006 Feb 25.

The concentration, composition, shape, and size of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) are determined by numerous proteins that influence its biogenesis, remodeling, and catabolism... 

 

Insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases 

Zeman M, Zak A, Vecka M, Tvrzicka E.
Cas Lek Cesk. 2005;144 Suppl 1:19-20, 22-6.

The article summarizes the nature and causes of the insulin resistance, its relation to the metabolic syndrome, and to the cardiovascular diseases. Insulin resistance can be defined as a set of abnormal clinical symptoms accompanied by lower tissue sensitivity to insulin... 

 

Relation between charge-based apolipoprotein B-containing lipoprotein subfractions and remnant-like particle cholesterol levels. 

Zhang B, Bottcher A, Imaizumi S, Noda K, Schmitz G, Saku K.
Atherosclerosis. 2006 Apr 15; [Epub ahead of print]

OBJECTIVE: Both mildly modified LDL subfraction that carries a more-negative electric charge and remnant-like particles (RLP) are closely related to triglyceride (TG) levels... 

 

Inhibitory effects of micronized fenofibrate on carotid atherosclerosis in patients with essential hypertension. 

Zhu S, Su G, Meng QH.
Clin Chem. 2006 Nov;52(11):2036-42. Epub 2006 Sep 21.

BACKGROUND: The coexistence of hypertension and dyslipidemia synergistically increases the risk of cardiovascular events. We investigated the effect of the lipid-lowering agent micronized fenofibrate on inhibition of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with essential hypertension and mild hyperlipidemia. 

 

Type 2 diabetes as an inflammatory cardiovascular disorder. 

Ziegler D.
Curr Mol Med. 2005 May;5(3):309-22.

Type 2 diabetes carries a 2-6-fold increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death. Indeed, the risk of major cardiovascular events in Type 2 diabetic patients without history of coronary heart disease (CHD) is equivalent to that observed in non-diabetic subjects with CHD.